Physical Education - Musculoskeletal System

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Terms in this set (41)
axial vs appendicular- axial (central structure eg. cranium, mandible, ribs, vertebral column) - appendicular (limbs eg. femur, humerus, tibia fibula)- cartilage (smooth, slightly elastic tissue at ends of bones and between joints that protects the bones) - tendons (very strong, connect muscles to bones) - ligaments (also strong, connects bones to bones)connective tissuestypes of joints- fibrous (fixed/immovable - offers no movement eg. pelvis) - cartilaginous (slightly moveable - offers some movement eg. vertebral column) - synovial (freely moveable - offers range of movement dependant on direction)- ball and socket eg. hip - hinge eg. elbow, knee - gliding eg. carpals, tarsals - saddle eg. thumb - condyloid eg. wrist - pivot eg. atlas and axis (vertebral column)synovial joint typesflexion and extensionflexion: decrease in angle of the joint eg. bending elbow or knee extension: extend out or increase the angle eg. straightening elbow or kneeabduction: movement of joint away from the body eg. lifting arm from body adduction: movement of joint back to or across middle of body eg. returning arm inwardsabduction and adductioncircumduction and rotationcircumduction: movement of bone in circular motion eg. moving fist in circular motion in the air rotation: movement of a joint around an axis eg. turning head to middle or side to sidepronation: rotation of hand so thumb moves towards the body eg. palm facing downwards supination: rotation of hand so thumb moves away from the body eg. palm facing upwardspronation and supinationeversion and inversioneversion: movement of the foot away from the body eg. twisting the ankle out inversion: movement of foot towards the body eg. twisting ankle inwardsdorsi flexion: decreasing the angle of the foot towards the body eg. raising toes up plantar flexion: increasing angle of the foot pointing out eg. pointing toes downwardsdorsi flexion and plantar flexionelevation and depressionelevation: movement of shoulders up (tensing) eg. shrugging of shoulders depression: relaxing of shoulders from the head eg. relaxing/ returning shoulderssuperior: towards the head or upper part of the body eg. cranium superior to sternum inferior: towards the feet or lower part of the body eg. tarsals are inferior to femursuperior and inferioranterior and posterioranterior: towards the front of the body eg. patella on anterior side of body posterior: towards the back of the body eg. scapula is posterior to sternummedial: towards midline of the body eg. sternum is medial to ribcage lateral: towards the outer side of the body eg. fibula is lateral to tibiamedial and lateralproximal and distalproximal: closer to trunk of the body eg. femur is proximal to patella distal: further away from the trunk of the body eg. phalanges are distal to humerus- body movement (muscles attach to bones to move the body) - adequate posture - essential bodily functions (heart, breathing, circulation, digestion)muscular system functionsmuscle types- cardiac muscle (makes up heart walls, responsible for controlling the heart - involuntary) - smooth muscle (blood vessels and intestines - involuntary) - skeletal muscle (attached to bones by tendons and are used to perform movement and physical activity - voluntary)- origin of muscle: proximal end (closest to midline - start) - insertion of muscle: distal end (away from midline - finish)skeletal muscle structurereciprocal inhibitionmuscles work in pairs to create movement. to create movement, one must contract and one must relax to allow bones to move. the muscle creating the movement is know as the agonist and the muscle relaxing is antagonist. muscles supporting the bones to be stable are called stabilisers. muscles assisting agonist to reduce unnecessary movement is called synergist.muscle power is dependant on total number of fibres - the greater number = greater power. - fusiform: long and thin, contract rapidly, produce low forced, muscle fibres run length of muscle in same direction as tendon eg. biceps brachii - pennate: muscle fibres run on angle from tendons, larger number of fibres for greater force (bipennate, unipennate and multipennate) eg. deltoid - radiate: convergent, origin is wider than point of insertion, fibre arrangement allows for increased power and strength eg. pectoralis majormuscle fibre arrangementmusclestrapezius, deltoids, pectoralis major, wrist flexor, quadricep, gastrocnemius, soleus, tibialis anterior, adductors, obliques, biceps, abdominals, latissimus dorsi, gluteus maximus, hamstrings, triceps- slow twitch: suited to aerobic work, endurance or long lasting work efforts (type 1 fibres and red in colour) eg. marathon running - fast twitch: best suited to short duration, high intensity, anaerobic work (type 2 fibres, white in colour) eg. sprints, throwing eventstypes of muscle fibresif nerve impulse meets a certain threshold, maximal action occurs in muscle fibre. if stimulation is less than threshold, no muscle action occurs in muscle fibre (either full response or none at all)all or nothing principlemuscle actions- isometric: muscle length remains unchanged, tension still produced, contraction has little or no movement, working against a force eg, gripping tennis racquet - isokinetic: resistance changes according to joint angle, speed or velocity of movement is constant regardless of force applied eg. special machines like cybex, biodex - isoinertial: load or resistance is constant, called isotonic, occurs when muscle length shortens (concentric) or when muscle lengthens (eccentric) whilst force is applied eg. concentric - bicep curl up eg. eccentric - quadriceps in squatsudden injuries during physical activity eg. torn hamstring direct acute: caused by external forced - players, balls eg. concussions indirect acute: caused by un natural and extreme force on joints - over stretching, quick speed change eg. ligament sprains soft tissue: skin, muscle, tendons and ligaments hard tissue: bones, dislocationacute injuriesoveruse injuriescaused by repetitive or unaccustomed use of muscle, tendon or bone eg. too much repitition, training load increase - tendonitis (inflammation of tendon) - stress fractures (bone is subjected to stress)damage or irritation to complex network of spinal muscles, nerves, bones, discs or tendons that can result in acute pain or referred pain eg. chronic back pain - repetitive impact, weight lifting loadchronic injuriesillnesses of musculoskeletal system- arthritis (reduction in cartilage - symptoms include joint pain and stiffness treatments include medication) - osteoporosis (progressive bone disease from reduced bone density - causes include ageing lack of calcium prevention: calcium intake and weight bearing exercise)- pre participation screening: medical examination/questionare to address health concerns - developing physical fitness appropriate: training prepares athletes for the sport eg. fitness testing - developing correct skills and techniques - completion of adequate warm up and cool down: warm up - complete low impact aerobic exercise cool down - recover from exercisephysiological strategiesphysical aides- protective equipment: shin pads in soccer, mouthguard in AFL, goggles in swimming etc - taping: reduces risk of injury and severity and limits joint movement; also triggers proprioception to receive and process stimuli - braces: similar to taping, more expensive, less abrasiveaims to treat injury and allow athlete to return to competition, reduce inflammation, increases flexibility and strength, improve proprioception. techniques include: heat and ice treatment (reduced swelling and bruising, increases blood flow), muscle conditioning (body weight exercises, weight training, resistance machines, cross training), joint and core stability (improves structural and functional weaknesses eg. yoga, stretching), flexibility training (active and passive methods eg. ultrasound and massage), balance (wobble or balance board, improves proprioception) and skill acquisition (work on skills in athletes sport)injury rehabilitation