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Terms in this set (147)
Which CN is a good example of bipolar neurons?
1) The cortex is made of ____ _____ matter
2) ____ grey matter is made of _____ nuclei
3) white matter is mainly ______
1) superficial grey
2) deep, basal
Where in body is grey matter deep and in the horns?
Name the common names (fore/mid/brain):
2) thalamus + hypothalamus
3) cerebrum + Lat. Ventricles
5) medulla oblongata
Label which structures belong to the forebrain (F), midbrain (M) + Hindbrain (H) + change into common names:
1) F, thalamus + hypothalamus
2) F, cerebrum
3) H, medulla oblongata
4) H, pons
These structures make up the ____
- midbrain, pons + medulla oblongata
The precentral gyrus is responsible for ___, is immediately ___ to the central sulcus
primary motor area- cerebral cortex, anterior
The postcentral gyrus is responsible for___, is immediately ___ to the central sulcus
primary somatic sensory area- cerebral cortex, posterior
primary somatic sensory area in
primary motor area in
Sensory Areas= _____ & _____ Sensory impulses
Motor Areas= initiate _____
Association Areas= complex ___________ functions
receive & interpret
Name the main lobes of the brain
The groove between the cerebellum + cerebrum is the ____, it is occupied by the
Transverse cerebral fissure
Wernicke's area is for
Broca's area is for
Speech motor- speaking
Rope like bundles of axons seen looking at bottom of brain are called
Where does 85% of motor tract decussation occur?
The Tectum does
Visual + auditory processing
What is within the Tectum + main function
VISUAL + AUDITORY PROCESSING
- Superior colliculus
The corpora quadrigema
The 4 colliculi of visual and auditory processing
Reflex to visual stimuli occurs in _______
Reflex to auditory stimuli occurs in _______
The Tegmentum is where ____
subconcious control of UL position + muscle tone occurs
Red nucleus in brain is within the
Where is the substantia nigra located?
Where are the two features of the Tegmentum?
- Red Nucleus
- Substantia nigra
The Tegmentum features are inf./sup. to the Tectum
The pons link what?
Cerebellum to mesencephalon, diencephalon, cerebrum + spinal cord
Nuclei of CN5,CN7, CN6, CN8 are in ____
The pons have nuclei that ...
- respiratory control
- relay info to and from cerebellum
- interconnect ascend+ descend. CNS tracts
All Proprioceptive, visual, tactile, balance and auditory sensations are monitered in the
What are the primary function of the Cerebellum?
- autonomic control of postural muscles
- programming & fine-tuning of conscious + subconscious movements
The Medulla O. connects what?
Brain to spinal cord
Which brain part is responsible for complex autonomic reflexes+ visceral function control?
The Medulla O has which centres+ nuclei + stations?
- CVS centres
- respiratory centres
- relay stations for motor + sensory pathways
PYRAMIDS of MEDULLA
Which arteries supply the CNS?
Circle of Willis
The Lateral Ventricles are in which primary+ secondary brain vesicles, with what other structure?
FOREBRAIN= Telencephalon, with cerebrum
The Third ventricle is in which primary+ secondary brain vesicle with what other structures (3)?
FOREBRAIN= Diencephalon, with Hypothalamas, thalamas + epithalamus
The Cerebral Aqueduct is in which primary+ secondary brain vesicle with what other structures (1)?
Mesencephalon (primary only) , with midbrain
The Upper 4th Ventricle is in which primary+ secondary brain vesicle with what other structures (2)?
- HINDBRAIN: metencephalon, with pons, cerebellum
The Lower 4th Ventricle is in which primary+ secondary brain vesicle with what other structures (2)?
- HINDBRAIN: myelencephalon, wth medulla o.
1) The brainstem is continuous with the _________
2) The Cerebellum is posterior to the ______
3) The Diencephalon is superior to to ____
4) The Cerebrum is supported on the _______ and _______ and is the ______ brain part
1) spinal cord
4) brainstem and diencephalon, largest
The Pineal gland is part of the ____ of the ______
epithalamas, of the diencephalon
Name the cranial meninges
1) Dura mater = outer- Periosteal (ext.), Meningeal (int.)
2) Arachnoid Mater = middle
3) Pia mater= inner
The Cranial meninges are continuous with the _________, they have the same ____ + _________, but differ because they have ________
Spinal Meninges, structure, names, 2 layers in cranial dura mater
Describe the dura mater
- layers fuse together, except when they seperate to enclose the dural venous sinuses
When do the layers of the dura mater seperate?
When they enclose the dural venous sinuses
Venous blood from brain is drained to the _______, via the ________
internal jugual vein, dural venous sinuses
What is the space between the Periosteal Dura Mater and the skull bones called
What are blood vessels that penetrate into brain sheathed by?
Loose-fitting pia mater sleeves
What 3 extensions of which meninges seperate the brain?
3 DURA MATER EXTENSIONS:
1) Falx Cerebri- separates cerebrum hemispheres
2) Falx cerebelli- separates cerebellum hemispheres
3) Tentorium cerebelli- separates cerebellum + cerebrum
cerebrum hemispheres seperated by
Falx Cerebri- Dura Mater Extension
cerebellum hemispheres separated by
Falx cerebelli- Dura Mater Extension
Cerebellum+ cerebrum separated by
Tentorium cerebelli- Dura Mater Extension
- Clear, colourless liquid
- made of mostly water
What does the CSF protect?
- Protects the brain + s.cord from chemical + physical injuries
How does the CSF protect?
- protects brain + s.cord from chemical + physical injuries
What does CSF carry?
- oxygen, glucose + other chemicals from blood tp the neurons - neurglia
- protein, lactic acid, urea, cat + anions, WBCs
Describe CSF circulation + what structure does it circulate w/n?
Slow and continiously through SUBARACHNOID SPACE
How is CSF formed?
What are Ventricles in brain?
CSF-filled cavities within brain
Where are lateral ventricles + what separates them?
1 in each cerebrum hemisphere, seperated anteriorly by SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM
what is the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM
Seperates lateral ventricles
Where is the third ventricle?
along midline, superior to the hypothalamas, between R+ L. 1/2s of thalamas
Where is the fourth ventricle?
Between brainstem + cerebellum
How are the ventricles connected?
Later ventricles connected by Inter-ventricular foramina then connect THIRD ventricle which connexts to FOURTH ventricle via aqueduct of midbrain
Where is the majority of CSF produced?
Modified blood capillary network in ventricle walls is known as
What meninges cover the Modified blood capillary network in ventricle walls
How is CSF produced?
In CHOROID PLEXUSES:
- selected substances from blood plasma filtered via capillaries and secreted by ependymal cells
Why can materials entering CSF from capillaries not leak between cells?
Because of Tight Junctions in the choroid plexus cells
Blood- CSF Fluid Barrier protects the ____ and _____
Blood- Brain Barrier is formed by ____________
Brain and spinal cord
- tight junctions of brain capillary endothelial cells over the ependymal cells
What is the mechanical protection function of CSF?
- shock- absorption
- buoys brain so it floats + lightens weight within skull
What is the chemical protection function of CSF?
- optimal chemical environment for efficient neuronal signalling
What is the circulation function of CSF?
- minor nutrient + waste exchange between blood & neural tissue
Describe the circulation of CSF through brain
Choroid plexuses pf each lateral ventricle connect to the third ventricle via interventricular foramina, more CSF added by choiroid plexus in the roof of cerebral aqudcuts, which connects it to the midbrain to the fourth ventricle, 4th's choroid plexus adds more fluid
- a little of this fluid passed downards to the central canadl of spinal cord
- majority to subarachnoid space via the 1 median aperture of the 4th ventricle +.2 lateral apretures of the 4th ventricle and circulates around the brain surface and spinal cord
How is CSF gradually reabsorbed into the blood?
- via arachnoid villi of the dural venous sinues (esp. superior sagittal sinus)
Unlike _____, the dural venous sinuses can't _________, because the ________ adheres to the rigid _______
Veins, collaspe, endothelium, dura mater wall
How does blood get into brain?
Mainly via internal carotid and vertebral Arteries
The brain stem is between the ___ + _______-
Spinal cord, diencephalon
The Medulla O. is a continuation of the ________ and it forms the ______ brainstem
Superior spinal cord, inferior
The Medulla O. begins at the _______ and extends to the ____ border of the _____
Foramen magnum, inferioir border of the pons
What is a key external landmark of the The Medulla O. that will distinguish it form the spinal cord?
- pyramids + olives at the lightly expanded cranial ends
The Medulla O. gives rise to the nerve ____ of __ of the cranial nerves?
nerve roots of 1/2 of the CNs
when it's all _______ matter, all ______ (ascending) and _____ (descending) _____ extend between _____ and other brain parts
white, sensory, motor, spinal cord
The pyramids are _____ matter buldges, on _________ Medulla O.
The pyramids are formed by the largest _______ (_______) tracts passing from _____ to s.cord
motor (desc.) tracts, cerebrum
Where does decussation of the pyramids occur?
Just superior to junction of medulla + spinal cord
The decussation pf pyramids is when
90% of L.pyramids axons cross to R.pyramids -vice versa
The decussation pf pyramids explains _____
how each side of brain controls movement on oppsoite body side
The _____ matter masses in the medulla houses several nuclei
Which centres + reflexes are controlled by the Medulla + where?
In grey matter massess:
- CVS centre= reguates force & rate of heartbeat + blood vessel diammter
- Medullary Resp. Centre= adjusts basic breathing rhythm
- others nuclei control vomiting, coughing and sneeziking reflexes
nuclei control vomiting, coughing and sneezing reflexes are found in
Medulla O. grey matter masses
The olives are _______ to each ______
lateral to each pyramid
What's w/n olive + what does it do?
INferioir Olivary nuclues- neurons relay impulses from pripriorecptors to cerebellum
nuclei relating to touch, concious proprioception, pressure and vibration are located in the ___ medulla
white matter band extends through medulla, pons + midbrain
Where is the RAS- reticular activating system found?
Which CNs are the RAS nuclei associated with?
1) CN8: VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR- hearing impulses
2) CN9:GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL - swallowing + saliva
3) CN10: VAGUS- pharynx, larynx, thorax, adbominal viscera
4) CN6: ACCESSORY- swallowing controlled by CN5
5) CN12: HYPOGLOSSAL- tongue movements in speech + swallowing
The pons are directly _____ to medulla and ______ to cerebellum
Pons have both ____ and ________.
Is a bridge connecting brain parts via _______
Nuclei + tracts
What are the 2 major structural components of the pons
Ventral Region- grey centres, white matter tracts
Dorsal REgion- ascending, descening tracts + CN nuclei
What does the ventral region of pons do?
- essential role in coordinating and maximising voluntary motor output efficiency
Within the pons, the ______ group helps breathing control
Pontine resp. group
Pons have the following CN nuclei:
1) CN5: TRIGEMINAL
2) CN6: ABDUCENS
3) CN7: FACIAL\
4) CN8: VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR
Cerebral peduncles are in the ____ midbrain
Cerebral peduncles are a tract pair containing tracts of _______, ______ and _________ ________ _______ that conduct impulses from ________ to _____, _____ and _____
corticospinal, corticobulbar _ coricpontine motor neurons, impulses, cerebrum, s.cord, medulla, pons
The tectum is the ____ midbrain
Reflex centres for tracking moving mages, reading + accomodation reflex in adjusting lens shape are in the
Superior Colliculi of the tectum in post. midbrain
Reflex centres for startle reflex are in the
Inferioir colliculu of the tectum of the posterior midbrain
Name the nuclei of the midbrain
L.R substantia nigra
L.R Red nuclei
Name the CNs nuclei in midbrain
1) CN3: OCULOMOTOR
2) CN4: TROCHLEAR
Reticular formatin *******
- Perception of sensory information and Motor areas controlling muscular movement corresponds to the
Complex integrative functions such as memory, personality traits & intelligence are in the
Limbic system (emotional survival behaviour) is found in the
Basal nuclei to coordinate gross, anatomical muscle movements + muscle tone regulation found in
Which nuclei coordinate gross, anatomical muscle movements + muscle tone regulation
Basal nuclei in CEREBRUM
relay of almost all sensory input into the cerebral cortex is in
the _______ provides sensory input from crude touch, pressure, pain & temperature
movement and planning control nuclei are in the
The control + integration of ANS & pituitary gland occurs in
The regulation of emotional + behavioural patterns + circadian rhythm occurs in
__ controls body temoerature, eating + drinking regulation
THe _____ produces ADH + oxytocin
The pineal gland is in the ____ and secretes ____
EPITHALAMUS (diencephalon), melatonin
Habenular nuclei found in the
Comparison of intended movements with reality to allow for smooth + coordinated, skilled movements happens in the
the ___ regulates posture + balance, may have a role in cognition + language processing
The relay of MOTOR output from the cerebral cortex to the pons occurs in
The relay f SENSORY input from spinal cord to the thalamas occurs in the
The relay of impuses from 1 cerebellum hemipsher to the other and between the medulla + midbrain occurs i the
The relay of SENSORY input+ MOTOR ouput between brain + spinal cord occurs in the
What are the lobes of the cerebellum + functions?
Cerebellar hemispheres seperated by:
1) Anterior lobe
2) superior lobe
- both govern subconsious movements
3) Flocculonodular lobe on interior surface- helps balance
What attaches the cerebellum to the brainstem?
3 paired cerebellar peduncles
INF,MIDD<SUP CEREBELLAR PEDUNCLES ****
HYpophysis + Pituitary gland makes up the
The Hypothalamas is ____ to the thalamas
Describe the regions of the Hypothalamas
1) Mamillary region- most post. part, smell reflexes
2) Tuberal region- widest part
3) Supraoptic region- superiot to optic chiasm
4) Preoptic regio- anterior ro3 and regulates ANS activies
Primary visual area is on the
Posterior occipital lobe
Primary somatosensory area is
directly posterior to centreal sulcus in post central gyrus of parietal lobe
Primary auditory area is on the
superior temporal lobe
Primary gustatory area is on the
base of post-cent. gyrus on parietal lobe
Primary olfactory area is on the
medial temporal lobe
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