Physical Education - Performance Enhancement

performance enhancement techniques
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Terms in this set (28)
performance supplementsbenefit performance or exercise recovery and research shows that there are few benefits but use of caffeine and bicarbonate benefit to athlete- increase strength and muscle mass - counteract undesirable side effects - mask presence of banned substances - enhance oxygen transfer - speed up rehydration process - alter sample provided for testing - increase alertness/ aggressivenessillegal substances and methodsanabolic steroidssynthetic versions of male hormone testosterone. work by stimulating protein synthesis by muscles for rapid growth and enhances athletes recovery from activity. issues include: liver damage, acne, depressionstimulates growth, cell reproduction and regeneration. benefits include: reduction of body fat, increase lean body mass, build connective tissue. issues include: low blood sugar, thyroid damage, premature deathhuman growth hormone (HGH)beta 2 agonistincrease density of fast twitch muscle fibres improving muscular strength and reduces body fat. issues include: tremors, headaches, irregular heart beatinvolves inserting DNA for enhancing performance and athletes use gene therapy to re engineer bodies. issues include: autoimmunity, generating new virus, unwanted gene transfergene dopingstimulantsactivates nervous system, reduces tiredness and muscle fatigue, enhances aggression, enhances competitiveness. issues include: increased blood pressure, insomnia, anxietyused to reduce pain from injury and helps athlete training harder (masks pain). issues include: gastrointestinal issuesnarcotic analgesics (pain killers)anti doping associationsASADA develops sporting culture free from doping and athlete performance is honest and works hard to deliver programme. WADA helps to restrict doping in sports, ensure harmonised and coordinated programs by collecting research, education etc.- teamwork - fairplay - honesty - equality sport integrity challenges include: - fair and honest performances - appropriate conduct by players and staff - use of illegal substance is cheatingethical considerationssociocultural influences of illegal performance enhancement- desire to be #1 - pressure - financial rewards - status and power - media reinforcement of success = winning - fear of losingtype of physical training that involves bursts of high intensity work alternated with periods of rest or low activity. advantages: intensive work, increase speed, increased enduranceinterval trainingaltitude trainingacclimatisation to altitude increases: - increase red blood cell, haemoglobin concentration - increase cardiac output - improves efficiency to respiratory muscles issues related: iron loss, dehydration, altitude sicknessenhances endurance performance and benefits include perception of effort or fatigue and effects muscle. side effects: increased HRcaffeinesports drinksrapid delivery of fluid, promote fluid intake and source of fuel. types include: isotonic, hypotonic, hypertonicchanges to training and nutrition that maximise muscle glycogen, increases carb 1 - 4 days before, used if exercising continuously. issues with carb loading: must taper exercise, difficult to consume high levels, weight gaincarbohydrate loadingmuscle repair and buildingearly intake after exercise of amino acid from good protein foods, benefits both resistance and endurance.- blood doping (transfusion of RBC to increase number and 02 capacity) issues include: infection, communication of disease, increased viscosity of blood. - EPO (hormone regulates RBC formation, more EPO means more RBC which boosts endurance) issues: blood pressure increase, flu - gene doping (inserting DNA)illegal strategies for cardiorespiratory system: