Biology - Week 3

Define the term clade
Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 37
Terms in this set (37)
A biological species is a group of organisms that can reproduce with one another in nature and produce fertile offspring.
limitation: if you have an asexually reproducing species. Extinct organisms (can't say who they are reproducing with).
A phylogenetic species is groups organisms by the smallest set of individual organisms that share a common ancestor.
limitation: it's prone to mutation over time. If mutations occurred you have more species. Therefore, we overestimate the number of species.
Holdridge life zone classification schemeglobal bioclimatic scheme for the classification of land areasWhat is Specht's classification system?Based on canopy cover and the height and form of the dominant vegetation.ANAE classification systemframework for classifying different aquatic ecosystems and habitats including rivers, floodplains, lakes, palustrine wetlands, estuaries and subterranean ecosystems.EUNIS habitat classification systemHabitat identificationHow is the process of classifying ecosystems an important step towards effective ecosystem management?Old growth forests productive soils coral reefsDescribe the process of stratified sampling-What is the purpose of stratified sampling?It is to either: Estimate a population Density distribution environmental gradients and profiles zonation stratification Used to consider different areas (or strata) which are identified within the main body of a habitat.Stratified sampling site selection?Stratified sampling methods (1st step)Random sampling and systematic samplingWhat is Random sampling?random number generator to divide a grid and pick a rid squareSystematic samplinge.g. sampling energy one metre. Not very good for something moving aroundStratified sampling techniques (2nd step)transects quadratsHow does stratified sampling minimize bias?size and number of samples random-number generators counting criteria calibrating equipment noting associated precisionStratified sampling methods of data presentation and analysis?-What is the role of helicase in the process of DNA replication?Enzyme that opens DNA by splitting hydrogen bonds. (Refer to direction of replication)What is the role of DNA polymerase in the process of DNA replication?Occurs after helicase unwinds the DNA.Reads from 3' to 5' and synthesises a new daughter stand from 5' to 3' direction (5' on 3' and 3' on 5') from free nucleotides in the nucleus.What is the structure of DNA?Has complementary base pairing Weak base specific hydrogen bonds between DNA strandsWhat is the difference between prokaryotic DNA and eukaryotic DNA?Prokaryotic DNA: - Stored in the cytoplasm in the form of a nucleoid. - Prokaryotes contain circular DNA. - do not have membrane-bound organelles. - older and simpler than eukaryotic Eukaryotic DNA: - stored in the nucleus - Eukaryotic DNA is linear, compacted into chromosomes by histones - Eukaryotic cells contain mitochondrial DNA in addition to nuclear DNA. - it is double-stranded - have membrane-bound organellesDescribe deoxyribose nucleic acid?- Double stranded molecule (helix) - Bound to proteins (histones) in chromosomes in the nucleus - Has unbound circular DNA in the cytosol of prokaryotes and in the mitochondria and chloroplasts of eukaryotic cells. - Nucleotide: consists of phosphate, sugar, and nitrogenous base (A-T, C-G) - Long strand of nucleotidesDescribe RNA?- Single stranded - base change (A-U, C-G) - Types of RNA include mRNA (messenger/transcription-->copying DNA), tRNA (transfer - translating from language of nucleic acids to amino acids (proteins)), rRNA (ribosomal) and other RNA (e.g. microRNA, gene regulation).Describe the process of translationThe purpose is to change from the language of Nucleic acid to amino acid. The protein-making machinery, called the ribosome, reads the mRNA sequence and translates it into the amino acid sequence of the protein, The ribosome starts at the sequence AUG, then reads 3 nucleotides at a time. Each 3-Nucleotides codon specifies a particular amino acid. The tRNA made of the anticodon can bind to the codon on the mRNA. The stop codons (UAA, UAG, UGA) tell the ribosome that the protein is complete and stops last tRNA from producing amino acid.Describe the process of transcription3 steps - Initiation, elongation, termination 1 (I). Enzyme RNA polymerase binds to the site on DNA at the start of a gene. It is helped by transcription factors. 2 (E). RNA polymerase separates DNA strands and synthesizes a complementary RNA copy from the antisense (non-coding) DNA strand. 3 (T). When the RNA polymerase reaches the termination site of the gene, RNA polymerase will detach from the DNA molecule; RNA detaches from the DNA and double helix reforms. This occurs in the nucleus.Explain the classification of organisms according to symbiosisparasitism - one species is harmed and the other is benefitted mutualism - both species benefit commensalism - one species is benefitted and the other is not harmed. ammensalism - one species is unaffected and the other is harmed predation - one of them acts as a predator that captures and feeds on the other organism that serves as the prey.Biological classification can be hierarchical or based on different levels of similarity. What are the different types of similarity?- Physical features - methods of reproduction - molecular sequencesWhat is the classification system for the methods of reproduction? Explain them...K-strategists - long parental care, longer life span, fewer offspring, longer life span. R-strategists - short parental care, shorter life span, more offspring, shorter life span. asexual and sexual???What is the classification system for molecular sequences?Molecular phylogeny - also called cladisticsWhat is the classification system for similarity if physical features? ExplainLinnaean system: - Kingdom (keep) - Phyllum (pond) - class (clean) - order (or) - family (frog) - genus (gets) - species (sick) or classify things into 5 kingdoms: - Plantae - Fungi - Animalia - Protista - Monera