End Trimester quiz

Cognitive-social theory incorporates:
Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 91
Terms in this set (91)
In a well-known example of classical conditioning, researchers taught a baby named Little Albert to fear a furry white rat by frightening him with a loud noise each time he reached out to touch the rat. Suppose Watson and Raynor had exposed little Albert repeatedly (i.e. on the second, third and all subsequent trials) to the white rat but without the noise. Albert's fear response would have:
Reinforcement is:an environmental event which increases the probability that a response will be repeatedThe highest and most consistent rate of response is produced by a _________ schedule of reinforcement.variable-ratioTolman coined the phrase 'latent learning' to describe learning that has occurred but:is not currently manifest in behaviour.When using punishment, you should:make sure the person being punished is reinforced for alternative, acceptable behaviours.Which of the following descriptions best describes classical conditioning?When a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that produces a response a number of times, the neutral stimulus comes to evoke a similar responseWhich of the following is not a problem with punishment?Punishment may make it difficult for rewards to work in other situations.Which of the following is the most fundamental concept underlying operant conditioning?Behaviour is controlled by its consequences.Which of the following statements concerning reinforcement is correct?Learning is quickest with continuous reinforcement, but partial reinforcement is more resistant to extinction.You clap with delight when your young son picks up a spoon. You laugh and applaud when he later brings the spoon toward his mouth. When he places the spoon in his mouth, you hug him. Whether you realise it or not, by reacting in this way to your son's behaviour, you are carrying out a process of:shaping.The three assumptions of learning are that:experience shapes behaviour, learning is adaptive, and laws of learning can be uncovered by experiment.A _______elicits a response; a _______ is an automatically elicited behaviourreflexive; learnedLong-term potentiation is:the study of the interaction between psychological processes and the nervous and immune systems.What of the following best describes the difference between shaping and chaining in operant conditioningare expectancies that influence a wide variety of behaviours.The ability of an organism to learn a task without being reinforced is best explained by the cognitive-social theory term:Locus of controlIn Albert Bandura's Bobo doll modelling studies, which groups of children were found to act the most aggressively?Those who watched the model acting aggressively.What is primarily responsible for latent learning?Cognitive mapsCommunication from one neuron to another is initiated by:neurotransmitters being released in the synapseIf my sleep pattern is irregular, this is due to which neurotransmitter?serotoninInformation is sent to the brain via the sensory or _____ neurons whereas information is sent to the muscles and glands of the body via motor or _____.afferent, efferentMari is now in a coma after a car accident. She most likely experienced damage to her:Reticular formationLynn has a disease called multiple sclerosis (MS) that makes her muscle coordination difficult and produces jerky uncoordinated movement. MS results from:progressive deterioration of the myelin sheathThe amygdala is involved with:emotional processes.The autonomic nervous system is responsible for:basic life processesThe branch-like extensions of a neuron, which receive input from adjacent cells, are known as:dendrites.The experience of a panic attack primarily involves the:activation of the sympathetic nervous system.The function of the blood-brain barrier is to:protect the brain from foreign substances in the blood.The hindbrain includes all of the following except the:hypothalamus.The major function of the ___________ is to maintain consciousness, regulate arousal levels and moderate the activity of neurons throughout the central nervous system.reticular formationThe reason that Braille reading works better when using the fingers to feel the symbols than using the toes is that, the _____________ for the fingers than for the toes.somatosensory cortex is largerThe somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system are subdivisions of the ______.peripheral nervous systemThe term 'lateralised' refers to the fact that:cortical functions are localised to one or the other side of the brain.The two cerebral hemispheres are connected by the:corpus callosum.Wernicke's aphasia results in:'word salad': words are tossed together so they make little senseWhich of the following condition has been associated with the basal ganglia?Parkinson's diseaseWhile roller blading without a helmet, Irena fell and hit the back of her head. She was taken to the hospital because she injured her:occipital lobe, and had visual problemsWithin a neuron, the direction of the nerve impulse moves from:dendrite to cell body to axonThe neurotransmitter involved in the regulation of mood, sleep, eating, emotional arousal and pain regulation is:serotonin.Which of the following best states the purpose of neurons?Neurons carry information from cell to cell within the nervous system as well as to and from muscles and organsThe degeneration of dopamine-releasing neurons in the brain causes which disease?Parkinson's diseaseA collection of glands that secretes hormones directly into the bloodstream is called the:endocrine system.The pituitary gland is often described as the 'master gland' because:many of its hormones stimulate and regulate other glands.A 'knee jerk' reaction is classed as a:reflex arc.The occipital lobes are located in the _____ portion of the cortex and are specialised for ______rear; visionThe structure within the limbic system that is particularly involved in learning and remembering emotionally significant events is the:amygdalaWhich of the following terms is used to describe changes in the structure and functioning of the brain in response to neural, environmental and behavioural experiences?The structures of the forebrain include the:Cognitive ___________ focus on inferring normal models of cognitive functioning from abnormal neural functioning.neuropsychologistsA heritability coefficient in the range of 50 percent means:nothing; this is not a valid expression of a heritability coefficient.Psychologists interested in genetics study the influence of genetic blueprints, referred to as ________, on observable psychological attributes or qualities, referred to as _______genotypes, phenotypesA consulting physician in the intensive care unit of a hospital is informed that the patient being seen has suffered trauma to her reticular formation. The doctor can infer that the patient is:unconscious._______ are rapid and operate simultaneously, whereas _______ have limited capacity and are slower.unconscious processes; conscious processesAs I take my calculus exam, I ignore the important information of what will happen to my scholarship if I get too many problems wrong. This is known asselective inattentionBarbiturates and benzodiazepines aredepressantsCigarette smokers report that smoking increases their arousal and alertness, while also providing a soothing effect. Nicotine has these effects on the body because it influences the:both sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.During which stage of sleep does the body experience increased heart rate, rapid breathing and genital arousal?REM sleepErin spends much of her time daydreaming about what she might do, where she might go, and thinking about her feelings and moods. Psychologists have found that her experiences are:a common and normal feature of consciousness.Following a car accident, I find that I now have the ability to see sounds and hear touch. I am suffering from:synaesthesiaI am repressing a memory from childhood because I find it too traumatising to think about. According to Freud, which consciousness is responsible for the repression?Unconscious mental processesOlivia is participating in a study that is researching the stages of sleep. The researchers are probably using:EEG.Qualitatively different patterns of subjective experience are called:states of consciousness.Splitting attention between two complex tasks is known as:divided attentionStage 2 sleep is characterised by:sleep spindles.The deepest stage of sleep as evidenced by EEG records is:delta sleep.The stages of sleep repeat about every ______ minutes.90Two functions of consciousness areregulating thought and behaviour; and monitoring the self and the environment.When people meditate, which of the following do they tend to NOT experience:a loss of voluntary control over actionsWhich is true of conscious processes?They have a limited capacity They are more flexible than unconscious processes. They can help provide the 'big picture'. All of the options listed are true of conscious processesWhich of the following is NOT a function of attention and consciousness?Controlling motor movementsYou are at a large family gathering and while talking to your grandmother, you suddenly hear your name mentioned in a conversation across the room, followed by laughter. This is an example of attentional filtering, and has been called the:the cocktail party phenomenon.The alertness component of consciousness appears to be regulated by:the reticular formation.Two functions of consciousness are:regulating thought and behaviour and monitoring the self and the environment.Which of the following is NOT a method used by researchers to measure consciousness?Self-report questionnairesDirect observationBrain imagingAll of the options can be used to measure consciousnessWhich of the below terms describes a mental state of operation in which a person is fully immersed, highly focused and receives intrinsic enjoyment?FlowAs defined by Freud, _______ mental processes are not presently conscious, but could be readily brought to consciousness if the need arose.preconsciousThe cognitive unconscious primarily includes:information processing mechanisms that operate outside of awareness.Strengths of unconscious processing include all but which of the following?They are more flexible than conscious processes.During a typical night's sleep, a complete cycle of REM and NREM sleep occurs about every:90 minutes.According to Freud's theories of dreams, dreams are chaotic because:unconscious processes are associative and during sleep no logical, rational processes monitor the story.What type of wave activity is marked in Stage 2 sleep?Sleep spindles and k-complexesAlcohol derives its powerful effects from all except for which of the following?The tendency to not be psychologically addictive.Cigarette smokers report that smoking increases their arousal and alertness, while also providing a soothing effect. Nicotine has these effects on the body because it influences:both the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.Which of the following psychoactive substances is not a stimulant?Alcohol