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Which of the following clarified the link between brain and behaviour?
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My essay examines the relationship between conscious awareness and unconscious mental forces being analogous to the visible tip of an iceberg and the vast, submerged hulk that lies out of sight beneath the water. This notion best fits with which of the following perspectives?PsychodynamicThe most important legacy of the psychodynamic perspective is its focus on:the unconscious.The primary method of behaviourism is:the experimental method.Which field of psychology argues that one's perception of the pieces will be influenced when seeing them as parts of the whole?GestaltA correlation coefficient measures the extent to which two variables are:co-related.A _________ is a systematic way of organising and explaining observations.theoryA negative correlation between two variables means:the higher a subject scores on one variable, the lower s/he will score on the other.A new kind of air conditioner is being tested for its noisiness. Subjects are told that the sound it emits tends to make people sleepy so that it would be a good device for bedrooms. Subjects are asked to use one for 30 days and complete a series of ratings, each day, regarding the ease with which they were able to fall asleep. The description of the study leaves one most concerned about:demand characteristics.An experiment compares student GPAs between those who eat breakfast and those who don't. After the experiment, it is found that those who eat breakfast in the cafeteria are also listening to music. Not only do the two groups differ in terms of who has breakfast, but they also differ in terms of who hears the music. Music is a:possible confounding variable.Any variable, other than the independent variable, that may be influencing the dependent variable in a systematic way is referred to as a/an _______ variable.confoundingA placebo effect:depends on the participant's belief in the effectiveness of the independent variable.A sample is defined as a subgroup:of the population that is likely to be representative of the population as a whole.As you walk into your Introductory Psychology class, your teacher flips a coin to determine whether you should be in Group A or Group B for her in-class experiment. This procedure is called:random assignmentExperiments have several advantages over other research methods. Among them are:replication and the establishment of cause and effect.Experiments provide the cleanest findings of any method of psychological research because experimenters can:manipulate variables one at a time and observe the effects of each.Informed consent involves:the participant's ability to agree to take part in the study.Reliability in a measurement:is the measure's tendency to give the same result from one occasion to the next.If the finding of my study can be generalised to situations outside the laboratory, the study has:external validity.The term, _______ refers to the ability to infer something about a larger population from the behaviours of a subset of that population.GeneralisabilityThree principles underlie critical thinking. They are:scepticism, objectivity and open-mindedness.To operationalise the variables means to:turn abstract concepts into concrete variables that are defined by some set of actions or operations.To test for cause and effect relationships, an experimenter manipulates the _________ variable and measures changes in the ___________ variableindependent; dependentWhich of the following might threaten the internal validity of a study?a. An unrepresentative sample b. Non-standardised procedures c. Extraneous variables d. All of the options listedWhile conducting research on the effects of video games on logical reasoning skills, some of your study's participants try to figure out the purpose of the research so that they can give you the results they think you want. This is a demonstration of:demand characteristics.Abraham Maslow proposed the ______ approach to motivation:hierarchy of needsAccording to Maslow's view of motivation, if you haven't eaten all day, your thoughts will be MOST focused on your:physiological needsAccording to the evolutionary perspective, emotions serve:an adaptive functionAssume that you want to perform well on this test, but you feel anxious about your ability to do so. In this case, your desire to perform well is related to your _____ state, while your anxiety is related to your _____ state.motivational; emotionalDeci's self-determination theory argues that people have innate needs. Which is NOT one of them?ExpectanciesEmotion regulation is associated with:a.reframing the meaning of an event b.suppression of emotion c.regulation of moods d.all of the options listedFor the past few days, Patrick has been feeling generally listless and uninterested in things he normally is interested in. Psychologists would term his experience of listlessness his current:moodIf we break down the concept of motivation, we would find that we need to consider:a.what people want to do. b.the goals they wish to pursue. c.how strongly they want to do it. d.all of the options listed.I see a movie in the movie theatre and think it is okay. I see it a few more times on television. I realise that the more I see it, the more I think it is a good movie. I could be exemplifying the:mere exposure effect.Kerry spends a lot of time reading because she enjoys reading books. It could be argued that Kerry reads because of ______.intrinsic motivationPeter is studying creative writing. He is not doing it to get the diploma that comes at the end of his program. Rather, his primary purpose is to become a better writer. His goal would be described as a:mastery goal.The belief that neutral stimuli become associated with the reduction of drives, such as hunger, and thus themselves become motivators is tied to which of the following?Secondary drivesThe idea that emotion is associated with physiological arousal and cognitive interpretation is tied to the _____ of emotion.Schachter-Singer theoryThe reasons for smiling may differ from culture to culture. For instance, in Japan people may smile when they are confused or angry. In Russia, it is considered bad manners to smile without a significant reason. Tourists have problems in Japan and Russia because of difficulty with:display rulesAmong the needs for agency, _______ refers to the need to do well, to succeed, and to avoid failure:achievement.Among the various needs for relatedness, which of the following is a social motive characterised by desire for interaction with friends or acquaintances?AffiliationWhich of the following is NOT a component of motivation?Physiological arousalWhich of the following is not generally considered one of the primary, basic, emotions?BoredomWhich of the following is NOT true of theories of emotion?Individuals are mostly the same in the intensity of their emotional statesWhich of the following would NOT support the development of intrinsic motivation?Cash payment as a rewardAbsolute threshold is the:minimum amount of physical energy needed for a person to notice a stimulus.Although each sensory system is attuned to particular forms of energy, all the senses share certain common features. Which of the following is NOT one of them?Sensing the world requires knowledge of the worldBrenda smells coffee brewing, sees a mountain scene as she waits for it to be poured, and listens to the early morning call of a magpie. Though all of these sensations start as different forms of physical energy (chemical, electromagnetic, air pressure waves), they all end up as patterns of neural impulses. This process of changing the physical energy into neural impulses is called:transductiondB is a measure of _________________.sound pressureI hear a review of a movie and then see it. If my perception of that movie is influenced by the reviews that I have heard, then this would support:a.interposition. b.linear perspective. c.shading. d.all of the options listed.People with prosopagnosia have difficulty:recognising familiar faces.Ryan has been woken at night by his wife who says she can just hear a strange, high-pitched beeping noise. He listens as carefully as he can and sometimes thinks he can hear the noise but isn't sure whether he is just imagining it. There is a good chance that the noise is around Ryan's __________ for sound of that frequency.absolute thresholdThe centre of the retina, which is most sensitive to small detail, is known as the:fovea.The idea of figure-ground refers to:distinguishing the relevant object from the background sensation.The idea that there must be a constant proportion between two stimuli for an individual to know that the two stimuli are indeed different, is known as:Weber's law.The process by which we gather information from the environment is known as __________; the process by which we organise and understand that information is known as __________.sensation; perceptionThe psychological property corresponding to frequency is known as:pitch.The three bones of the middle ear do not include:Eustachian.The three psychological characteristics of sound are:pitch, loudness and timbre.What are the two proprioceptive senses?Kinaesthesia; vestibularWhat can I expect of a sound that is louder than another sound?The sound waves of the louder sound are higher than the sound waves of the softer soundWhat is the pathway visual information takes, after it travels along the optic nerve:optic chiasm, lateral geniculate nucleus, primary visual cortex.When you look out the window of a moving car, you see trees passing very quickly. However, when you look straight ahead, the trees appear to be moving much more slowly. This phenomenon is known as:motion parallax.Which of the following is NOT an important function of smell?It is used for communication, at least in humansCognitive-social theory incorporates:behaviour concepts of conditioning with cognition and social learning.Extinction in operant conditioning occurs if enough conditioning trials pass, in which:the operant is not followed by the consequence previously associated with it.Humans are more likely to develop phobias of spiders or snakes, rather than flowers or sheep. This is likely due to:prepared learning.If you remove an aversive situation when the organism makes the desired response, you are using:negative reinforcement.In a well-known example of classical conditioning, researchers taught a baby named Little Albert to fear a furry white rat by frightening him with a loud noise each time he reached out to touch the rat. Suppose Watson and Raynor had exposed little Albert repeatedly (i.e. on the second, third and all subsequent trials) to the white rat but without the noise. Albert's fear response would have:extinguished.In classical conditioning, the most effective form of temporal relationship between the CS and UCS involves:forward conditioning.In operant conditioning, when a response has been extinguished:it may return spontaneously.In vicarious learning:a person learns the consequences of an action by watching someone else's results.Prior to the fall of the Berlin wall, East Berlin schools de-emphasised individualism. This in part explains the East Berliners' tendency to have an:external locus of control.Regarding conditioning, prepared learning refers to:the biologically wired preparedness of an organism to learn some associations more easily than others.Reinforcement is:an environmental event which increases the probability that a response will be repeated.The ability of an organism to learn a task without being reinforced is best explained by the cognitive-social theory term:latent learning.The highest and most consistent rate of response is produced by a _________ schedule of reinforcement.variable-ratioTolman coined the phrase 'latent learning' to describe learning that has occurred but:is not currently manifest in behaviour.When using punishment, you should:make sure the person being punished is reinforced for alternative, acceptable behaviours.Which of the following descriptions best describes classical conditioning?When a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that produces a response a number of times, the neutral stimulus comes to evoke a similar responseWhich of the following is not a problem with punishment?Punishment may make it difficult for rewards to work in other situations.Which of the following is the most fundamental concept underlying operant conditioning?Behaviour is controlled by its consequences.Which of the following statements concerning reinforcement is correct?Learning is quickest with continuous reinforcement, but partial reinforcement is more resistant to extinction.You clap with delight when your young son picks up a spoon. You laugh and applaud when he later brings the spoon toward his mouth. When he places the spoon in his mouth, you hug him. Whether you realise it or not, by reacting in this way to your son's behaviour, you are carrying out a process of:shapingCommunication from one neuron to another is initiated by:neurotransmitters being released in the synapse.If my sleep pattern is irregular, this is due to which neurotransmitter?serotonin.Information is sent to the brain via the sensory or _____ neurons whereas information is sent to the muscles and glands of the body via motor or _____.afferent, efferentMari is now in a coma after a car accident. She most likely experienced damage to her:Reticular formationLynn has a disease called multiple sclerosis (MS) that makes her muscle coordination difficult and produces jerky uncoordinated movement. MS results from:progressive deterioration of the myelin sheath.The amygdala is involved with:emotional processes.The autonomic nervous system is responsible for:basic life processes.The branch-like extensions of a neuron, which receive input from adjacent cells, are known as:dendritesThe experience of a panic attack primarily involves the:activation of the sympathetic nervous system.The function of the blood-brain barrier is to:protect the brain from foreign substances in the blood.The hindbrain includes all of the following except the:hypothalamus.The major function of the ___________ is to maintain consciousness, regulate arousal levels and moderate the activity of neurons throughout the central nervous system.reticular formationThe reason that Braille reading works better when using the fingers to feel the symbols than using the toes is that, the _____________ for the fingers than for the toes.somatosensory cortex is largerThe somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system are subdivisions of the ______.peripheral nervous systemThe term 'lateralised' refers to the fact that:cortical functions are localised to one or the other side of the brain.The two cerebral hemispheres are connected by the:corpus callosum.Wernicke's aphasia results in:'word salad': words are tossed together so they make little senseWhich of the following condition has been associated with the basal ganglia?Parkinson's diseaseWhile roller blading without a helmet, Irena fell and hit the back of her head. She was taken to the hospital because she injured her:occipital lobe, and had visual problems.Within a neuron, the direction of the nerve impulse moves from:dendrite to cell body to axon.A consulting physician in the intensive care unit of a hospital is informed that the patient being seen has suffered trauma to her reticular formation. The doctor can infer that the patient isunconscious._______ are rapid and operate simultaneously, whereas _______ have limited capacity and are slower.unconscious processes; conscious processesAs I take my calculus exam, I ignore the important information of what will happen to my scholarship if I get too many problems wrong. This is known as:selective inattention.Barbiturates and benzodiazepines are:depressantsCigarette smokers report that smoking increases their arousal and alertness, while also providing a soothing effect. Nicotine has these effects on the body because it influences the:both sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.During which stage of sleep does the body experience increased heart rate, rapid breathing and genital arousal?REM sleepErin spends much of her time daydreaming about what she might do, where she might go, and thinking about her feelings and moods. Psychologists have found that her experiences are:a common and normal feature of consciousness.Following a car accident, I find that I now have the ability to see sounds and hear touch. I am suffering from:synaesthesia.I am repressing a memory from childhood because I find it too traumatising to think about. According to Freud, which consciousness is responsible for the repression?Unconscious mental processesOlivia is participating in a study that is researching the stages of sleep. The researchers are probably using:EEG.Qualitatively different patterns of subjective experience are called:states of consciousness.Splitting attention between two complex tasks is known as:divided attention.Stage 2 sleep is characterised by:sleep spindles.The deepest stage of sleep as evidenced by EEG records is:delta sleep.The stages of sleep repeat about every ______ minutes.90Two functions of consciousness are:regulating thought and behaviour; and monitoring the self and the environment.When people meditate, which of the following do they tend to NOT experience:a loss of voluntary control over actions.Which is true of conscious processes?a.They have a limited capacity. b.They are more flexible than unconscious processes. c.They can help provide the 'big picture'. d.All of the options listed are true of conscious processes.Which of the following is NOT a function of attention and consciousness?Controlling motor movementsYou are at a large family gathering and while talking to your grandmother, you suddenly hear your name mentioned in a conversation across the room, followed by laughter. This is an example of attentional filtering, and has been called the:the cocktail party phenomenon.Alicia cannot remember the events immediately preceding her car accident in which she suffered multiple head injuries. This is an example of:retrograde amnesia.Because of _____ memory, it does seem to be true that once you learn to ride a bike you never forget.proceduralThe subsystem of declarative memory that contains memories of particular events is:episodic memory.Ebbinghaus' forgetting curve reveals that:a vast amount of information is lost in a short period of time.Schemas:play a reconstructive role in memory.In a study on context cues, people learned words while on land or underwater. In a later test of recall, those with the best memory performance had:learned the words and been tested on them in the same context.Increasing the number of ways you encode information:significantly improves retrieval.Short-term memory is:brief; limited in capacity; quickly accessed.Memory expressed in behaviour that does not require conscious recollection is:implicit memory.Multiple-choice tests, such as this, often involve which type of retrieval from LTM?RecognitionProcedural memory refers to:how-to knowledge.Prospective memory is memory for:remembering to pick up the kids later on this afternoon.The encoding specificity principle implies that:retrieval is easier if the encoding and retrieval environments are similar.Because memory is both functional and reconstructive:it is subject to errors and biases.In a study involving the Bahrick family trying to learn 300 foreign language vocabulary words, the best way to learn the information was found to be:to spread the study sessions across longer intervals.What is the normal range of information people can hold in short-term memory?Five to nine itemsWhen a list of words is presented to participants, they tend to remember those at the beginning and at the end of the list more easily than those in the middle, because of:the serial position effect.Which of the following is an important way to maintain information in short-term memory?Maintenance rehearsalWorking memory refers to the:temporary storage and processing of information that can be used to solve problems, respond to environmental demands, or achieve goals.You learned to drive on the left-hand side of the road in Australia. You are now living in America, where they drive on the right-hand side of the road. When you are driving, old driving habits resume whenever your concentration is broken. What is interfering with you learning to drive in America?Proactive interferenceAccording to Erikson, at each of the eight stages, an individual faces what type of challenge that is normative for that period of life?Developmental taskAccording to Kohlberg, at the third level of moral development, postconventional morality, morality is:abstract, self-defined principles.A child of what stage is incapable of seeing the world from anyone else's viewpoint or perspective?a.Sensorimotor b.Preoperational d. Both a and bAn individual answers the Heinz dilemma arguing that Heinz should not steal the drug, because 'he might get caught and go to jail'. This reasoning is most characteristic of which of Kohlberg's stages of moral development?preconventional moralityChildren develop a theory of mind between the ages of approximately:2 and 4Jeremy was born with serious heart, face, and finger deformities and is showing signs of attentional problems and learning delays, most likely as a result of his mother's behaviour during pregnancy. Jeremy is most likely suffering from:foetal alcohol syndrome.Environmental agents that harm the embryo or foetus are referred to as:teratogens.Erikson was one of the first theorists to take the notion of development beyond adolescence seriously. He describes the developmental tasks confronting young adults as:intimacy versus isolation.In the Strange Situation experiment, a child with an avoidant attachment style is most likely to:ignore the mother when she returns.Jasmine has just found out that she is five weeks pregnant. This stage is known as:the embryonic period.Piaget referred to ______ as the interpretation of actions or events in terms of one's present schemas.assimilationResearchers comparing a group of people who are 100 years old, to people in their 60s and 80s, must be particularly concerned with the possibility that:some differences among the age groups may actually be associated with differences in culture.Royce is demanding and disobedient, has no respect for the property or rights of others, and is impulsive, immature, and out of control. He does what he pleases with little regard for consequences. According to Baumrind, it is MOST likely that his parents are engaged in _____ parenting.permissive.The ability to know that just because I physically spread out my money, there really is not any more, is an example of:conservation.The idea that changes in behaviour and body occur as a result of biologically based changes that follow an orderly sequence, is referred to as:maturation.The zone of proximal development refers to:the development that reflects a continuum of cognitive development.To function as adults, children must learn the rules, beliefs, values, skills, attitudes, and behaviour patterns of their society, a process called:socialisation.To keep up with technology, many Australians had to change from using a typewriter to using a computer for word processing. A person's typing schema will have to ______ to incorporate the new techniques needed to use the new equipment.accommodateWhich is NOT a crisis encountered during development, according to Erikson?Affiliation versus social isolationWhich of the following is NOT a pattern of infant attachment?Overly attached