Motivation and Emotion Final

__ 1. The textbook identifies four problems that take center stage in the motivational struggles of the self. Which one of the following is not one of the self's motivational struggles?
a) Defining or creating the self
(b) Discovering and developing personal potential
(c) Increasing self-esteem
(d) Managing or regulating the self
(e) Relating the self to society
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__ 1. The textbook identifies four problems that take center stage in the motivational struggles of the self. Which one of the following is not one of the self's motivational struggles?
a) Defining or creating the self
(b) Discovering and developing personal potential
(c) Increasing self-esteem
(d) Managing or regulating the self
(e) Relating the self to society
2. The problem with placing too much emphasis on self-esteem in a motivational analysis of behavior is that:
(a) no programs yet exist to show how self-esteem can be increased.
(b) self-esteem is too difficult to measure to be treated as a scientific construct.
(c) self-esteem changes and varies too much with situational events.
(d) there are almost no findings that self-esteem causes anything at all.
5. Which of the following statements regarding self-esteem is most true?
(a) High self-esteem causes high subsequent achievement/performance.
(b) People with low self-esteem are significantly more prone to aggression and acts of violence than are people with high self-esteem.
(c) Self-esteem is a bi-product of life satisfactions, triumphs, and positive relationships.
(d) all of the above
10. Research finds that high self-esteem persons choose to interact with people who evaluate them positively, while low self-esteem persons choose to interact with people who evaluate them negatively. This shows that, generally speaking,
(a) high self-esteem people are vulnerable to the illusion of control.
(b) low self-esteem people are vulnerable to a self-verification crisis.
(c) people choose to interact with people who are similar to themselves.
(d) people choose to interact with people who treat them in a way that they want to be
treated.
11. When a person receives potent social feedback that disconfirms his or her preexisting self-conception, what variable determines whether the person will or will not experience a change in self-concept? (a) self-concept certainty (b) whether self-esteem is positive or negative (c) whether the self-concept is positive or negative (d) whether the social feedback is positive or negative(a) self-concept certainty12. Which of the following events combine to instigate the self-verification process: (a) mildly self-discrepant feedback combined with low self-concept certainty. (b) mildly self-discrepant feedback combined with moderate self-concept certainty. (c) strongly self-discrepant feedback combined with low self-concept certainty. (d) strongly self-discrepant feedback combined with moderate self-concept certainty.(c) strongly self-discrepant feedback combined with low self-concept certainty.13. Agency within the self emanates primarily from: (a) cognitive beliefs such as self-schemas. (b) innate psychological needs. (c) negative emotions such as shame. (d) positive emotions such as pride. (e) social interaction opportunities(b) innate psychological needs.14. ____ describes the process through which the self expands and elaborates itself into an ever-increasing complexity. (a) Differentiation (b) Dissonance (c) Identity (d) Integration (e) Verification(a) Differentiation15. Intrinsic motivation and the psychological needs of autonomy and competence are inseparably associated with the self's: (a) agency. (b) domain-specific self-schemas. (c) identity. (d) self-concept.(a) agency.16. The experience of cognitive dissonance is psychologically aversive. To reduce dissonance, people often: (a) add a dissonant belief (b) add a new consonant belief (c) decrease the importance of a consonant belief (d) increase the importance of a dissonant belief(b) add a new consonant belief17. Cognitive dissonance theory predicts that once a difficult choice between equally attractive alternatives is made, people experience: (a) counter-reaction balancing. (b) effort justification. (c) insufficient justification. (d) mental gymnastics. (e) post-decision regret.(b) effort justification.18. Self-perception theory is more applicable to situations in which people's attitudes are initially _____, while cognitive dissonance theory is more applicable to situations in which people's attitudes are initially _____. (a) clear, salient, and strong; vague, ambiguous, and weak (b) negative, positive (c) positive, negative (d) vague, ambiguous, and weak; clear, salient, and strong(d) vague, ambiguous, and weak; clear, salient, and strong19. According to the self-concordant model, when people attain a self-concordant goal, they experience high: (a) need satisfaction. (b) relationship involvement. (c) self-consistency. (d) self-verification.(a) need satisfaction.20. Self-concordance refers to a sense of ____ that people have regarding their goals and strivings. (a) confidence (b) longevity (c) ownership (d) positivity (e) tension(c) ownership21. According to empirical research, the more people organize their personal strivings around ____ themes, the more positive their long-term well-being is likely to be. (a) achievement (b) autonomy, competence, and relatedness strivings (c) power (d) preventing psychological and physical illness(b) autonomy, competence, and relatedness strivings22. Analyses of people's goals and personal strivings suggests that subjective well-being is: (a) about adopting an equal ratio of performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals. (b) more about what one accomplishes in life rather than what one actually strives after. (c) what one consciously and intentionally tries to do rather than what is unconscious. (d) what one is striving for than about what one actually attains.(d) what one is striving for than about what one actually attains.23. Which of the following is a critical key to developing competent self-regulation? (a) advice and admonition to "visualize success" (b) high levels of cognitive dissonance (c) mixture of mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals (d) observation and imitation of an expert model.(d) observation and imitation of an expert model.24. According to the study of effective self-regulation, people can acquire, develop, and master complex skills quickly and masterfully if they have: (a) advice and admonition to "visualize success" (b) high levels of cognitive dissonance (c) mixture of mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals (d) opportunities to observe and imitate an expert model.(d) opportunities to observe and imitate an expert model.25. The textbook uses the ancient Chinese phrase, "Start with your master, finish with yourself", to illustrate how people develop competence with which motivational struggle of the self? (a) Defining or creating the self (b) Discovering and developing personal potential (c) Increasing self-esteem (d) Managing or regulating the self (e) Relating the self to society(d) Managing or regulating the self. In Buddhist thought (Dalai Lama), which are the three most destructive emotions? (a) anger, greed, lust (b) craving, agitation, and hatred (c) fear, anger, and greed (d) love, hate, and fear (e) sadness, guilt, and shame(b) craving, agitation, and hatred2. Which of the following is not one of the four core components of emotion? (a) bodily arousal (b) feelings (c) sense of purpose (d) significant life event (e) social-expressive(d) significant life event3. The ____ component of emotion gives emotion its communicative aspect. (a) bodily arousal (b) feelings (c) sense of purpose (d) significant life event (e) social-expressive(e) social-expressive4. The ____ component of emotion gives emotion its cognitive or mental aspect. (a) bodily arousal (b) feelings (c) sense of purpose (d) significant life event (e) social-expressive(b) feelings5. When sad, a person is motivated to take the action necessary to overcome or reverse the sense of failure or separation just experienced. This motivational aspect of the sadness emotion illustrates which component of the sadness emotional experience? (a) bodily arousal (b) feelings (c) sense of purpose (d) significant life event (e) social-expressive(c) sense of purpose6. According to a biological view of emotion, about how many different emotions are there? (a) two—love and hate (or life and death) (b) a small number—between 2 and 10 (c) 25—as represented by the 5 x 5 emotion grid (d) an almost limitless number(b) a small number—between 2 and 107. According to a cognitive view of emotion, about how many different emotions are there? (a) two—love and hate (or life and death) (b) a small number—between 2 and 10 (c) 25—as represented by the 5 x 5 emotion grid (d) an almost limitless number(d) an almost limitless number8. Which of the following group of theorists would be most likely agree with this statement: "Emotions emanate from subcortical processing and may or may not include cortical involvement." (a) biological emotion researchers only (b) cognitive emotion researchers only (c) both biological and cognitive emotion researchers (d) neither biological nor cognitive emotion researchers(c) both biological and cognitive emotion researchers9. In Buck's two-system view of emotion, the biological system is relatively _____ in human beings' evolutionary history while the cognitive system is relatively _____. (a) important, unimportant (b) unimportant, important (c) ancient, new (d) new, ancient(c) ancient, new10. According to Plutchik's analysis of emotion, which of the following does not contribute to the cauldron of experience that causes emotion? (a) arousal (b) cognition (c) facial expressions (d) feelings (e) social roles(e) social roles11. According to Buck's proposition that emotions are the read out of motivational states, motives energize and direct behavior while emotions: (a) also energize and direct behavior, but in much more potent fashion than do motives. (b) channel undirected behavior into goal-directed behavior. (c) facilitate or inhibit that behavior. (d) all of the above(c) facilitate or inhibit that behavior.12. In the discussion on the cognition vs. biology debate on emotion, the textbook concludes that: (a) more evidence supports the biological view. (b) more evidence supports the cognitive view. (c) neither view is correct, and emotion research needs a third view. (d) both views are correct, but they emphasize different aspects of the emotion process.(d) both views are correct, but they emphasize different aspects of the emotion process.13. Which of the following is not a criteria researchers use to identify an emotion as a basic emotion? (a) It arises from the same circumstances for all people. (b) It evokes a distinctive physiological patterned response. (c) It is expressed more frequently by adults than by infants and children. (d) It is expressed uniquely and distinctively, as through a facial expression. (e) It is innate, rather than acquired through experience.(c) It is expressed more frequently by adults than by infants and children.14. ____ motivates defensive behavior. It acts as a warning signal to forthcoming harm. (a) anger (b) disgust (c) distress (sadness) (d) fear (e) interest (f) joy (happiness)(d) fear15. ____ is the most negative, aversive emotion. It motivates the person to do whatever it takes to get rid of some troubling set of circumstances. (a) anger (b) disgust (c) distress (sadness) (d) fear (e) interest (f) joy (happiness)(c) distress (sadness)16. ____ is the most prevalent emotion in day-to-day functioning. (a) anger (b) disgust (c) distress (sadness) (d) fear (e) interest (f) joy (happiness)(e) interest17. The principal antecedent of _____ is physical and psychological restraint or interference, as in the experience that a situation is "not what it should be." (a) anger (b) disgust (c) distress or sadness (d) fear (e) interest (f) joy or happiness(a) anger18. According to the text, _____ is potentially the most dangerous emotion, as its functional purpose is to destroy barriers in one's environment. (a) anger (b) disgust (c) distress or sadness (d) fear (e) interest (f) joy or happiness(a) anger19. The emotion of _____ facilitates cohesiveness in social groups. (a) anger (b) disgust (c) distress or sadness (d) fear(c) distress or sadness20. The _____ emotion arises primarily from experiences of separation and failure. (a) anger (b) disgust (c) distress or sadness (d) fear (e) interest (f) joy or happiness(c) distress or sadness__21. According to those who study the functions of emotions, which of the following statements is most true? (a) Emotions disrupt and disorganize behavior. (b) Emotions make it difficult for the person to cope optimally with the situation at hand. (c) Emotions undermine people's cognitive sense of logic and rationality. (d) The functions of some emotions are more important, behaviorally speaking, than are the functions of other emotions. (e) There is no such thing as a "bad" emotion.(e) There is no such thing as a "bad" emotion.22. In Kraut and Johnston's study of bowlers, the researchers found that bowlers were much more likely to smile when they _____ than when they _____. (a) made a bad bowling score, made a good bowling score (b) made a good bowling score, made a bad bowling score (c) engaged their friends, made a good bowling score (d) made a good bowling score, engaged their friends(c) engaged their friends, made a good bowling score23. Under the influence of positive affect, people are significantly more likely to: (a) donate money to charity. (b) help a stranger in distress. (c) initiate conversations with other people. (d) solve problems in a creative way. (e) all of the above(e) all of the above24. Which of the following is the best explanation of why positive affect generates so many positive outcomes, like creativity, helping, and sociability? (a) Being in a good mood influences biology, like serotonergic brain pathways. (b) Being in a good mood influences cognition, like memory and judgment. (c) Being in a good mood suppresses negative affect that would otherwise generate negative outcomes. (d) Being in a good mood suppresses negative emotions like fear from rising to a threshold of awareness.(b) Being in a good mood influences cognition, like memory and judgment.25. Unlike emotions, moods: (a) are situation-specific in that we seem to have a mood for every different situation. (b) emanate from significant life situations and the appraisal of their significance. (c) function mostly to bias cognitions and what the person thinks about. (d) lasts for seconds or perhaps minutes.(c) function mostly to bias cognitions and what the person thinks about.Which of the following sequence of events best reflects the James-Lange theory of emotion? (a) I see a dog, I appraise the situation as harmful, I feel fear, my heart races. (b) I see a dog, I feel fear, relief replaces fear, relief fades away. (c) I see a dog, I feel fear, my heart races. (d) I see a dog, my heart raced, I feel fear.(d) I see a dog, my heart raced, I feel fear.The person who experiences an increase in heart rate and a decrease in skin temperature is probably feeling which emotion? (a) anger (b) disgust (c) fear (d) guilt (e) love(c) fear3. Differential emotions theory takes its name from its emphasis on basic emotions serving unique, or different: (a) mood states (b) motivational purposes (c) patterns of antecedent conditions (d) relations to social interaction (e) ways or patterns of thinking(b) motivational purposes4. According to the facial feedback hypothesis, facial feedback does one thing, which is: (a) emotion activation. (b) emotion balancing. (c) emotion cueing. (d) emotion filtering. (e) emotion patterning.(a) emotion activation.According to Tomkins, which of the following emotions is not activated by an increased rate of neural firing? (a) anger (b) fear (c) interest (d) surprise(a) angerAccording to research on the weak version of the facial feedback hypothesis, which of the following conclusions is most valid? (a) Exaggerating facial feedback can exaggerate an emotional reaction. (b) Suppressing facial feedback can suppress an emotional reaction. (c) The contribution of facial feedback to emotional experience is small, relative to other factors. (d) all of the above(d) all of the aboveIzard's Differential Emotions theory gets its name from the observation that all emotions: (a) are blends of basic, or differential, micro-experiences. (b) can be arranged in a hierarchy according to their hedonic tone. (c) can be arranged in a hierarchy according to their capacity to motivate action. (d) can be differentiated from feelings and moods. (e) serve a unique, or different, function(e) serve a unique, or different, functionAll cognitive emotion theorists endorse the position that: (a) emotion activation arises from a felt tendency to approach or avoid the stimulus event. (b) emotion activation arises from the combination of cognitive and biological events. (c) the appraisal, not the stimulus event itself, causes emotion. (d) the stimulus event, not the appraisal, causes emotion.(c) the appraisal, not the stimulus event itself, causes emotion.Which of the following sequence of events best describes Arnold's appraisal view of emotion? (a) action à emotion à appraisal (b) appraisal à emotion à action (c) emotion à action à appraisal (d) emotion à appraisal à action(b) appraisal à emotion à action. Which one of the following best represents Lazarus' concept of primary appraisal? (a) Can I cope with this situation? (b) Is this event a personal threat? (c) What was the outcome—a success or a failure? (d) What will happen next? (e) Why did I succeed at this task?(b) Is this event a personal threat?Lazarus' theory of emotion is a cognitive-motivational-relational one. What does it mean to say that the theory is relational? Relational means that emotion arises from one's relationship: (a) with on-going motivational states. (b) with other people. (c) with the significant people in one's life. (d) to environmental threats and benefits.(d) to environmental threats and benefits.The appraisal, "Is this situation relevant to my well-being?", constitutes a _____ appraisal. (a) outcome-driven (b) primary (c) reflected (d) secondary (e) tertiary(b) primaryAccording to Lazarus, a _____ appraisal, which occurs after some reflection, involves an estimate of whether one can do anything to cope with a potential stressor. (a) primary (b) secondary (c) tertiary (d) outcome-driven (e) reflected(b) secondary_____ follow(s) secondary appraisals. (a) Coping responses (b) Parasympathetic nervous system activation (c) Perception of the stimulus event (d) Primary appraisal (e) Sympathetic nervous system activation(a) Coping responsesA _____ involves both a cognitive search through available coping options as well as a prediction of whether each option will or will not be successful in managing the stressor. (a) cognitive disruption (b) coping response (c) emotional disruption (d) primary appraisal (e) secondary appraisal(e) secondary appraisalWhat did Lazarus' view of emotion add to Arnold's? (a) The idea that cognitive appraisals play at least as important a role as does physiological reaction. (b) The idea that each discrete emotion involves its own unique appraisal. (c) The idea that emotion is a unitary phenomenon. (d) The idea that the physiological and cognitive systems interact to produce emotion. (e) all of the above(b) The idea that each discrete emotion involves its own unique appraisal.According to appraisal theories, which emotion would a person experience following these four appraisals of an emotional situation: An important goal was at stake; the goal was lost; another person blocked my goal attainment; and the loss was undeserved/illegitimate? (a) anger (b) disgust (c) distress, or sadness (d) hate (e) jealousy(a) angerIn Weiner's attributional analysis of emotion, the immediate consequence of an outcome is an outcome-dependent emotional response, which Weiner calls a _____ of the outcome. (a) causal analysis (b) retrospective analysis (c) primary appraisal (d) secondary appraisal(d) secondary appraisal. According to the text, _____ affords people the ability to appraise situations with high discrimination and to respond with a vast array of situationally-appropriate emotional reactions. (a) a positive mood (b) attribution (c) cognitive complexity (d) emotion knowledge (e) neural activation(d) emotion knowledgeThe number of different emotions a person can distinguish within his or her own experience is called: (a) appraisal. (b) attribution of emotion. (c) emotion knowledge. (d) emotional complexity. (e) person-emotion development(c) emotion knowledge.According to an attributional analysis of emotion, attributing a negative outcome to an external and controllable cause generates the emotional reaction of: (a) anger. (b) fear. (c) guilt. (d) pity. (e) shame.(a) anger.According to an attributional analysis of emotion, attributing a negative outcome to an external and uncontrollable cause generates the emotional reaction of: (a) anger. (b) fear. (c) guilt. (d) pity (e) shame.(d) pityWhen a person automatically mimics another's emotional expression and begins to synchronize his or her own emotion with the other's in terms of expression, vocalization, postures, and movements, what emotional phenomena has occurred? (a) Emotional contagion (b) Emotional contact (c) Emotional reversal (d) Emotional sociology (e) Socially shared cognition(a) Emotional contagionLearning to manage one's private, spontaneous emotions and feelings in a situationally-adaptive, publically-scripted, and socially desirable way is referred to as: (a) Emotional contagion (b) Emotional contact (c) Emotion management (d) Emotional reversal (e) Emotional sociology(c) Emotion managementThe most frequent source of a person's day-to-day emotion is: (a) external sources of information that conflict with one's prior beliefs. (b) other people (c) success-failure outcomes (d) unconscious memories (e) weather-related events(b) other peopleTypologies—a person is, for instance, either an introvert or an extravert—categorize people as one type of personality or the other. The textbook's conclusion on the validity of typologies is that they are: (a) accurate and useful. (b) accurate and useful for some personality characteristics but inaccurate for others. (c) accurate and useful for children and youth but misleading for adults. (d) misleading, as most people harbor a moderate amount of any given personality characteristic.(d) misleading, as most people harbor a moderate amount of any given personality characteristic.Which of the following statements is true? (a) Introverts are at least as happy as extraverts, if not more so. (b) Most people are happy, and this is true almost irrespective of life circumstances. (c) People in social occupations are happier than are people in nonsocial occupations. (d) The more money (wealth) people have, the happier they are, generally speaking.(b) Most people are happy, and this is true almost irrespective of life circumstances.Which of the following statements is not true? (a) Activating the Behavioral Activating System (BAS) explains who experiences negative emotion (unhappiness). (b) Extraverts are happier than are introverts. (c) Neurotics are unhappier than are non-neurotics. (d) Who is happy and who is unhappy can be predicted reliably from personality characteristics.(a) Activating the Behavioral Activating System (BAS) explains who experiences negative emotion (unhappiness).76. Why are extraverts generally happier than are introverts? It is because extraverts are: (a) less sensitive to negative feelings and to signals of punishment. (b) more sensitive to positive feelings and to signals of reward. (c) more likely to gain control over life situations that would otherwise be stressful. (d) psychologically stronger and hardier than introverts.(b) more sensitive to positive feelings and to signals of reward.The happiness set point can be explained by individual differences in: (a) Extraversion. (b) Intelligence. (c) Neuroticism. (d) Perceived control. (e) Type A behavior pattern.(a) Extraversion.78. The unhappiness set point can be explained by individual differences in: (a) Extraversion. (b) Introversion. (c) Neuroticism. (d) Perceived control. (e) Type A behavior pattern.(c) Neuroticism.Compared to introverts, extraverts are more: (a) assertive. (b) conscientious. (c) emotionally stable. (d) hostile. (e) open to experience(a) assertive.Extraverts are happier than introverts in terms of ___ well-being, but extraverts are not necessarily happier than introverts in terms of ___ well-being. (a) Conscious, preconscious (b) Preconscious, conscious (c) Eudaimonic, hedonic (d) Hedonic, eudaimonic (e) Positive, social (f) Social, positive(d) Hedonic, eudaimonicNeuroticism is to ____ as extraversion is to ____. (a) happiness, suffering (b) suffering, happiness (c) overstimulation, understimulation (d) understimulation, overstimulation(b) suffering, happinessThe personality characteristic to explain individual differences in "Who is unhappy?" is: (a) extraversion (b) introversion. (c) neuroticism. (d) perceived control. (e) type A behavior pattern.(c) neuroticism.The motivational function of the Behavioral Activating System (BAS) is to energize: (a) acetylcholine in the neocortex. (b) an attention-getting stress response. (c) approach-oriented, goal-directed behavior. (d) avoidance-oriented, goal-directed behavior. (e) coping behavior to exert control over the environment.(c) approach-oriented, goal-directed behavior.The motivational function of the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) is to energize: (a) acetylcholine in the neocortex. (b) an attention-getting stress response. (c) approach-oriented, goal-directed behavior. (d) avoidance-oriented, goal-directed behavior. (e) coping behavior to exert control over the environment.(d) avoidance-oriented, goal-directed behavior.. _____ is a hypothetical construct representing the cortical, behavioral, and autonomic mechanisms that govern alertness, wakefulness, and activation. (a) Arousal (b) Cognition (c) Drive (d) Regulation(a) ArousalAccording to the book, arousal level is mostly a function of how _____ the environment is. (a) educational (b) friendly (c) predictable (d) punishing (e) stimulating(e) stimulatingStudies on the effects of sensory deprivation on affect (emotion) showed that exposure to a rigidly monotonous environment made participants unusually: (a) angry. (b) disgusted. (c) fearful. (d) irritable. (e) sad.(d) irritable.Overstimulating, stressful environments instigate all of the following types of disruption, except: (a) cognitive (e.g., confusion). (b) emotional (e.g., anxiety). (c) physiological (e.g., blood pressure). (d) social (e.g., conformity pressures).(d) social (e.g., conformity pressures)._____ is a personality trait defined by the seeking of varied, novel, complex, and intense sensations and experiences and the willingness to take physical, social, legal, and financial risks for the sake of such experiences. (a) Affect intensity (b) Desire for control (c) Extraversion (d) Introversion (e) Sensation seeking(e) Sensation seekingPsychopharmacological studies have shown that sensation seekers have significantly lower levels of _____ than do sensation-avoiders. (a) brain lateralization hormones (b) catecholamines (c) endorphins (d) MAO inhibitors(d) MAO inhibitorsCompared to affect stable individuals, affect intense individuals react: (a) essentially the same to good events but overly negatively to bad events. (b) overly negative to both good and bad events. (c) overly positive to both good and bad events. (d) overly positive to good events and overly negative to bad events. (e) overly positive to good events but essentially the same to bad events.(d) overly positive to good events and overly negative to bad events.. Perceived control beliefs predict: (a) extent of positive affect experienced during social interaction. (b) how much effort and engagement a person is willing to exert in a potentially controllable situation. (c) how well people manage their emotions in ambiguous situations. (d) level of arousal a person experiences in a potentially controllable situation.(b) how much effort and engagement a person is willing to exert in a potentially controllable situation.Burger gave persons either high or low in the desire for control (DC) insolvable puzzles and observed how long they persisted. As predicted, high DC individuals persisted longer than did low DC individuals. Why? (a) High DC individuals wanted the experimenter's approval more. (b) High DC individuals wanted the extrinsic incentive more. (c) High DC individuals were less willing to admit they had encountered a task that was beyond their personal control. (d) Low DC individuals felt a "learned helplessness" and gave up on the puzzle quicker.(c) High DC individuals were less willing to admit they had encountered a task that was beyond their personal control.In a learned helplessness experiment with a series of harsh, uncontrollable, and unpredictable noise blasts, how did high and low desire for control individuals differ? (a) High DC individuals performed significantly better. (b) Low DC individuals performed significantly better. (c) High DC individuals reported a greater depression. (d) Low DC individuals reported a greater depression.(c) High DC individuals reported a greater depression.Agencydiscovering and developing the self's potential.angerubiquitous emotion which arises from restraintappraisalan estimate of the personal significance of an eventattributionthe reason that a person uses to explain an important life outcomeautonomyself-determinationcognitive dissonancewhen beliefs about who the self is and what the self does are inconsistentconsistent selfseeking a consistent self-view which is a verification process that prevents self-concept stabilitydisgustgetting rid of or getting away from a contaminated, deteriorated, or spoiled objectemotion differentiationfeeling different emotions during different eventsfearemotional reaction that arises from a persons interpretation that the situation he or she faces is dangerous and a threat to ones well-beinghappinessa byproduct of life satisfaction, triumphs, and positive relationshipsidentityrelating the self to societyjoythe emotional evidence that things are going wellpossible selfwhat an individual would like to become and also what they are afraid of becomingprimary appraisalappraisal involves an estimate of whether one has anything at sake in the encountersadnessarise principally from experiences or separation or failuresecondary appraisalinvolves the persons assessment for coping with the possible benefit, harm, or threatself-acceptancepositive evaluation of oneselfself-conceptdefining and creating the selfself-regulationmanaging or regulating the selfsurprisecan be negative or positive emotion, neutraltwo-systems viewtwo synchronous systems that activate and regulate emotionsList the 4 coping strategies to manage cognitive dissonance:1. Remove the dissonant belief 2. Reduce the importance of the dissonant belief 3. Add a new consonant belief 4. Increase the importance of the consonant beliefWhat is the problem with using feelings in our discussion of emotions?● Hard to describe ● Hard to measure ● Hard to explain ● They are private- make them hard to discussWhat are the four factors that make up emotion?1. Feelings 2. Bodily arousal 3. Sense of purpose 4. Social-expressiveAffect control theory suggests that Motivation and Emotion Produce 2 things related to the identity. What are they?Identities motivate behavior while affective deflections energize behavior. People with nice (or powerful) identities engage in nice (or powerful) behaviors. When people act in identity-conflicting ways, affective deflection occurs to energize identity-restoring courses of action.Know the 3 social and cultural aspects of emotion1. Emotion knowledge 2. Expression management 3. Emotion managementBe able to fill in the blanks for Arnold's Appraisal theory of emotionSituation --> appraisal (good or bad) --> emotions (liking or disliking) --> action (approach or withdrawal)Which 2 criticisms against the Inverted U hypothesis does Neiss suggest are relevant to motivation and emotion?1. The inverted U curve is descriptive rather than explanatory 2. Even if the inverted U hypothesis is true, it is still trivial and only applies when arousal levels are extreme