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Geography Unit 3 AOS 1 - Deforestation
Terms in this set (21)
Climate is consistent across the year with hot humid weather and high amounts of rainfall during certain times.
Borneo is an example.
The long term reduction of tree canopy cover to below 10-30%.
Deforestation comes in many forms including fires, clear-cutting for agriculture, ranching and development, unsustainable logging for timber, and degradation due to climate change.
The process of deforestation
It is when deforestation results in more than 10-30% of forest cover remaining through processes such as selective logging or the development of a secondary forest.
Refers to the process of planting trees on land that was not previously forested.
When a large section of vegetation (forest) is cleared with no selections made.
There is a clustered/dispersed pattern in the global distribution of deforestation. Occurs on all continents except Antarctica. Northern South America and Southeast Asia are both areas where large amounts of deforestation take place. An exception is the northern parts of North America as it has a large forest region, however experiences little deforestation.
Distribution of deforestation
Located in southeast Asia, it is a large island approximately 400km south of China and 1500km North west of Australia.
Relative location of Borneo
- Intense tropical climate; generally hot and humid (over 80% humidity).
- Temperatures generally range between 25 degrees and 35 degrees.
- Primarily mountainous with dense areas of rainforest.
Natural Characteristics of Borneo
- Population over 21.3 million (as of 2014).
- Economies; tourism, agriculture, oil and petroleum
- Range of different languages spoken on Borneo due to political ownership of land (governed byIndonesia, Malaysia and Brunei.
Human Characteristics of Borneo
- Only half of Borneo's forest cover remains today, down from 75% in the mid 1980s.
- In 1973, Borneo was covered with 75% of forest; in 2010 this percentage was down to 52%.
Statistics Relating to Deforestation (Land Cover Changes) in Borneo
- El Nino - An El Nino occurs when sea surface temperatures in the central and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean become substantially warmer than average, and this causes a shift in atmospheric circulation. They cause climate events such as droughts and fires which in turn cause deforestation.
- Wildfires - A wildfire is an unplanned and uncontrolled fire in a large area of vegetation, such as a forest. Wildfires can occur naturally (e.g. through lighting strikes) or by humans starting them. A minor cause of deforestation (1%).
Natural Processes of Deforestation
- Clear-felling for large-scale agriculture (Palm oil plantations) - Large areas of forest are often clear-felled (removal of all trees). These areas are then used for new palm oil plantations - oil palm trees are planted. Agriculture is responsible for over 70% of global deforestation. Palm oil is used in cooking and other products.
- Climate change - The enhanced greenhouse effect can change the range and species composition of forests. Certain plants and animals can no longer survive after global warming.
Human Activities of Deforestation
Habitat Destruction - Causes an increased number of endangered species as a result of habitat destruction. Approximately 50% of the orangutang population has died in the last 60 years.
Environment Impacts of Deforestation
Positive - Increases the standard of living for many, in Indonesia about 44% of Palm oil plantations are owned by small farmers. Increased development as money is generated through this practice.
Negative - Women's rights. They work on dangerous plantations and are exposed to chemicals that can cause damage to the body. Limited protective attire.
Social Impacts of Deforestation
Positive - Good for the economy as this practice is many families/communities' only means of income. Regionally palm oil plantations generate over $40 billion (U.S) which is injected into the government's economy.
Negative - Approximately $2.3 billion of illegally logged timber is traded between countries in east and southeast Asia. 73% of timber exported from Indonesia and 35% from Malaysia is sourced illegally.
Economic Impacts of Deforestation
Global Forest Watch is a web application that uses Geographic Information System (GIS) which is a computer-based mapping software that collects, stores and analyse's data and displays this information as easily understood maps. The data is represented as layers and can be turned on and off.
The web application provides a free GIS mapping service that the public can use. This includes satellite images as well as a range of functions.
Type of Geo Spatial Technology
Since its launch in 2014 over 4 million people have visited Global Forest Watch from every country in the world. Anyone can create an 'area of interest' which lets you customize and perform an in-depth analysis of the area. Government's and organisations can access the site to try and stop illegal deforestation and fires. By having this technology, it supports smarter decisions to protect forests from natural and human causes of deforestation. Ultimately, it is highly effective in assessing and managing deforestation.
How GIS Assesses and Manages Land Cover Change
Name - FORMADAT
Who was Involved - Indigenous peoples of the highlands of Borneo.
Aims - Aims to maintain the strength of cultural traditions, and encourage the development of organic agriculture and sustainable ecotourism.
Strategies Used - Create organic and sustainable agriculture practices. Establish communication hubs to reach the rest of the world to inform them of deforestation in Borneo. Develop community-based ecotourism.
Successes - Won the 2015 Equator Prize for 21 outstanding local and indigenous community initiatives. The response has a long-term vision and plans on operating into the future.
Failures - The scale of the response is a failure as deforestation in Borneo is an extremely large issue and it is unlikely FORMADAT will resolve the issue fully.
Overall Effectiveness - Moderately effective and had many successes.
Local Scale Response to Deforestation in Borneo
Name - The Heart of the Borneo Initiative
Who was Involved - The three governments of Borneo (Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei).
Aims - They aimed to ensure the effective management of forest resources, demonstrated by securing a sustainable future for Borneo's highland.
Strategies Used - Created a network of protected areas, sustainably managed forests, and land-use zones across the 22 million hectares which constitute the 'Heart of Borneo', an area that covers a third of the island.
Successes - The targeted area is faring better than the island as a whole. The 'Heart of Borneo' is still a massive area of over 17 million hectares of rainforest.
Failures - The governments still need to understand much more in regard to the value of forests and the costs and benefits associated with sustainable landscape management. 10% of the forest in the 'Heart of Borneo' has disappeared since 2007 when the declaration was signed.
Overall Effectiveness - It was somewhat effective, however, it is still a work in progress.
National Scale Response to Deforestation in Borneo
Name - Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+). Started by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
Who was Involved - 194 countries in 1994 (UNFCCC), UNFCCC set up REDD+ in 2005.
Aims - Aimed to create a financial value for the carbon stored in forests.
Strategies Used - Offering incentives for developing countries to reduce emissions from forested lands and invest in low-carbon paths to sustainable development.
Successes - Indonesia and Malaysia are both REDD+ partner countries. Developed countries can assist developing countries. The UNFCCC has highlighted deforestation as a key driver of climate change.
Failures - Not a long-term sustainable program as it relies on money to provide the incentive for the trees to get cut down. Generalized aims that are hard to measure for efficiency.
Overall Effectiveness - Somewhat effective but not likely to meet all its aims.
Global Scale Response to Deforestation in Borneo
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