Large Animal Uro-nephrology

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Urinary disease is usually primary in large animals - true/false
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A 7‐month‐old steer is presented for anuria. On examination, you notice some abdominal distention and tissue swelling. You suspected a rupture of the urinary tract. Name two electrolytes that will be abnormal on serum chemistry of this steer, and state if they will be above or below reference intervals. (2 Marks)- Sodium = below >> kidneys job to retain Na therefore dysfunction = loss - Chloride = below >> Cl- follows Na - Potassium = above >> kidneys job to excrete therefore dysfunction = accumulation - Phosphorous = above or below - Calcium = above or belowWhich is FALSE? a. Urea is lower in herbivores b. Creatinine is higher in foals c. UPC ratios have good value in large animal diagnostics d. Creatinine is an indicator of glomerular filtration ratec - limited value with poor sens. & specificityWhich of the following is NOT a cause for acute kidney injury in large animals? a. E. Coli b. Heavy metals such as mercury and arsenic c. NSAID's such as phenylbutazone, flunixin d. Unmanaged pyelonephritisdList three clinical findings of AKI in large animals-Anuria/stranguria/pollakuria/pigmenturia - Isosthenuria - HyperCr - HyperPhosp/HypoCalcList the clinical findings of chronic kidney disease in large animals- Anuria/polyuria/stranguria - Isosthenuria - Azotemia - HypoPhosph/HyperCalc - Weight loss/Anorexia - OedemaQuestion 65 An 8-year-old Warmblood gelding is presented for persistent polyuria following treatment with phenylbutazone. Urinalysis reveals a USG of 1.010, a white cell count of 8 WBC/hpf and presence of crystals and casts. Where, in the urinary tract, do you suspect a lesion (be specific)?- Likely tubular disorder Why? - Polyuria - Exposure to NSAID's - Isosthenuria - Presence of castsInterstitial disorders- More commonly chronic and in foals - CSx: vague, weight loss, anorexia - Caused by infections, developmental disorders, tumoursTubular disorders- More commonly acute - Causes: toxins & anti-inflammatories/vasoconstrictors - Csx: polyuria (tubules responsible for retaining water therefore dysfunction = loss), isosthenuria, hypoNa, HypoCl- and castsObstructive disorders- Very common in show production animals - Males at risk esp. when castrated as reduces size of urethra - Subsequent to urinary inflammation & high protein diet - Csx: haematuria after exercise, weight loss, colic, anuria/stranguria/polyuria, azotemia, hypoNa, hypoCl, hyperK