It's pretty staggering to think about the amount of medical progress made in the past 50 years. From new vaccines, to treatments for cancer to gene therapies, the ways we interact with medicine have altered much about modern life. One particularly impressive achievement? The first heart transplant was performed 50 years ago in South Africa. What's especially impressive about heart transplants is the outcome of the dramatic surgery; 98% of recipients are alive at one year and the five-year survival rate is 78%. Even if you're not a medical professional, there's much to learn about when and how heart transplants are performed. Or, just brush up on anatomy basics, by studying a human heart diagram.