HIST 118 (Chapter 25 Key Terms)
Terms in this set (63)
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
Organized in the fall of 1960 by Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. as a student civil rights movement inspired by sit-ins, it challenged the status quo and walked the back roads of Mississippi and Georgia to encourage Blacks to resist segregation and to register to vote.
1961 event organized by CORE and SNCC in which an interracial group of civil rights activists tested southern states' compliance to the Supreme Court ban of segregation on interstate buses
March on Washington (1963)
A large political rally that took place in Washington, D.C. on August 28, 1963. Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his historic "I Have a Dream" speech advocating racial harmony at the Lincoln Memorial during the march. Widely credited as helping lead to the Civil Rights Act (1964) and the National Voting Rights Act (1965). 80% of the marchers were black. Organized by union leader A. Philip Randolph.
Bay of Pigs
In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
Cuban Missle Crisis (1962)
Standoff between John F. Kennedy and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev in October 1962 over Soviet plans to install nuclear weapons in Cuba. Although the crisis was ultimately settled in America's favor and represented a foreign-policy triumph for Kennedy, it brought the world superpowers perilously close to the brink of nuclear confrontation.
Drafted by founding members of the Young Americans for Freedom (YAF), this manifesto outlined the group's principles and inspired young conservatives who would play important roles in the Reagan administration in the 1980s.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
1965; invalidated the use of any test or device to deny the vote and authorized federal examiners to register voters in states that had disenfranchised blacks; as more blacks became politically active and elected black representatives, it brought jobs, contracts, and facilities and services for the black community, encouraging greater social equality and decreasing the wealth and education gap
Hart-Cellar Act of 1965
Eliminated the national origins quota system for immigration established by laws in 1921 and 1924; led to radical change in the origins of immigrants to the United States, with Asians and Latin Americans outnumbering Europeans.
President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
War on Poverty
Lyndon Johnson declared war on poverty in his 1964 State of the Union address. A new Office of Economic Opportunity oversaw a variety of programs to help the poor, including the Job Corps and Head Start.
This commission, chaired by Otto Kerner, decided that the race riots were due to the formation of two different American cultures: inner-city Blacks and suburban Whites.
A slogan used to reflect solidarity and racial consciousness, used by Malcolm X. It meant that equality could not be given, but had to be seized by a powerful, organized Black community.
Port Huron Statement
A 1962 manifesto by Students for a Democratic Society from its first national convention in Port Huron, Michigan, expressing students' disillusionment with the nation's consumer culture and the gulf between rich and poor, as well as a rejection of Cold War foreign policy, including the war in Vietnam.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia.
The Feminine Mystique
Written by Betty Friedan, journalist and mother of three children; described the problems of middle-class American women and the fact that women were being denied equality with men; said that women were kept from reaching their full human capacities
The first gay rights organization that worked to persuade the public that apart from their sexual orientation, gays were average Americans who ought not to be persecuted.
Red Power Movement
The movement among American Indians during the late 1960s, and early 1970s, that sought to end the federal policy of termination and to revitalize Indians communities and cultures, often though direct action.
A book written to voice the concerns of environmentalists. Launched the environmentalist movement by pointing out the effects of civilization development.
Baker v. Carr
Case of one man one vote. This decision created guidelines for drawing up congressional districts and guaranteed a more equitable system of representation to the citizens of each state
1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
A supporter of women's claims to the same rights and treatment as men
1921-2006. American feminist, activist and writer. Best known for starting the "Second Wave" of feminism through the writing of her book "The Feminine Mystique".
National Organization for Women (NOW)
Founded in 1966, the National Organization for Women (NOW) called for equal employment opportunity and equal pay for women. NOW also championed the legalization of abortion and passage of an equal rights amendment to the Constitution.
A person who participates in environmentalism, a social movement that seeks to protect the environment through lobbying, activism, and education
United States biologist remembered for her opposition to the use of pesticides that were hazardous to wildlife (1907-1964)
America's oldest and largest grassroots environmental organization founded in 1892 in San Fransisco, Cali first President was John Muir group was pushed by the wealthy bc they wanted to conserve the nature (despite all the land the already own and "corrupted") for their later generations
People in the United States who trace their origins to Latin American countries and cultures
Non-violent leader of the United Farm Workers from 1963-1970. Organized laborers in California and in the Southwest to strike against fruit and vegetable growers. Unionized Mexican-American farm workers.
United Farm Workers Union
Founded by Cesar Chavez and Dolores Huertas to fight for better working conditions and fair compensation for Mexican American agricultural workers.
Having sexual interest in or sexual partners of the same sex; a male homosexual
The father of the Gay Rights Movement and the founder of the Mattachine Society. He asked basic identity questions about what it means to be gay and used a paradigm of spirituality to explain why homosexuality is something to be recognized as sacred and spiritual. The Mattachine Society was founded to protect and improve the rights of homosexuals. Hay believed homosexuality was a cultural minority and argued against assimilation in favor of a celebration of difference. He also co-founded the Radical Faieries, which are a loosely-affiliated worldwide network and counter-cultural movement seeking to redefine queer consciousness through spirituality.
A member of any of the indigenous peoples of the Americas.
This man drafted the "We are not free" speech in 1968 in which he cited how Natives were experiencing a "poverty of spirit"
American Indian Movement (AIM)
A coalition that fought for Indian rights guaranteed by treaties(broken by the U.S. government many, many times over) and better conditions and opportunities for American Indians.
One-time pimp and street hustler, converted to a Black Muslim while in prison. At first urged Blacks to seize their freedom by any means necessary, but later changed position and advocated racial harmony. He was assassinated in February, 1965.
Martin Luther King Jr.
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)
Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba (born in 1927)
(JFK) , volunteers who help third world nations and prevent the spread of communism by getting rid of poverty, Africa, Asia, and Latin America
Civil Rights Act of 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
24th Amendment (1964)
Prohibits federal and state governments from charging poll tax
Lyndon B. Johnson
Signed the civil rights act of 1964 into law and the voting rights act of 1965. he had a war on poverty in his agenda. in an attempt to win, he set a few goals, including the great society, the economic opportunity act, and other programs that provided food stamps and welfare to needy families. he also created a department of housing and urban development. his most important legislation was probably medicare and medicaid.
A fortified wall surrounding West Berlin, Germany, built in 1961 to prevent East German citizens from traveling to the West. Its demolition in 1989 symbolized the end of the Cold War. This wall was both a deterrent to individuals trying to escape and a symbol of repression to the free world.
Warsaw Pact Countries
Soviet Union, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
The year that contained a series of shocks; the assassinations of Martin Luther King Jr. and Robert Kennedy; Tet Offensive; Prague Spring; Democratic convention riot; urban riots
Limited Test Ban Treaty
the 1963 treaty in which the United States and the Soviet Union agreed not to conduct nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere
MFDP (Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party)
Party established in Mississippi in 1964 as a rival to the regular Mississippi Democratic Party because the regular Democratic Party in Mississippi would not allow Blacks to participate. Challenged the regular Mississippi Democratic Party for seats at the 1964 Democratic National Convention. They were Fannie Lou Hamer was one of the main leaders of this group.
Barry Goldwater v. Lyndon B. Johnson, LBJ won by a landslide
Coalition of younger members of the Democratic party and radical student groups. Believed in participatory democracy, free speech, civil rights and racial brotherhood, and opposed the war in Vietnam.
The Antiwar Movement
Increased in intensity as the war escalated, college campuses were shut down, Kent State 4 students killed by national guard during protest
Police raided stonewall bar in NY in '69 and the bars clients fought back. Used to form a gay rights group.
Loving v. Virginia
1867 court case that declared all laws against interracial marriage unconstitutional
Miranda v. Arizona
Supreme Court held that criminal suspects must be informed of their right to consult with an attorney and of their right against self-incrimination prior to questioning by police.
Griswold v. Connecticut
Married couple wanted to get contraceptives; struck down a Connecticut law prohibiting the sale of contraceptives; established the right of privacy through the 4th and 9th amendment
Roe v. Wade
The 1973 Supreme Court decision holding that a state ban on all abortions was unconstitutional. The decision forbade state control over abortions during the first trimester of pregnancy, permitted states to limit abortions to protect the mother's health in the second trimester, and permitted states to protect the fetus during the third trimester.
Chicago Democratic Convention
Where 10,000 antiwar protestors gathered outside as Hubert Humphrey was decided upon as the Democratic candidate in 1968
A phrase used to describe people, whatever their economic status, who uphold traditional values, especially against the counterculture of the 1960s
In 1968, Czechoslovakia, under Alexander Dubcek, began a program of reform. Dubcek promised civil liberties, democratic political reforms, and a more independent political system. The Soviet Union invaded the country and put down the short-lived period of freedom.
(LBJ) , large scale rioting, summer 1966 and 1967, so President appointed National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, said democracy to all citizen, adequate financing by both the federal and local govt.
Democratic Convention of 1968
When the democrats gathered to chose either Hubert Humphrey or Eugene McCarthy as there presidential candidate, large antiwar protest broke out and were meet by aggressive police. Protesters began to chant "The whole world is watching."
Assassination of Robert Kennedy
JFK's brother and was assassinated before being able to finish his political race, was assassinated during his bid for the 1968 Democratic presidential nomination
Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.
It caused riots over 100 cities across America. One week after his death Congress passed the Civil rights Act of 1968 it prevented discrimination in housing.
Increased in intensity as the war escalated, college campuses were shut down, Kent State 4 students killed by national guard during protest
Civil Rights Movement
A social movement in the United States during the 1950s and 1960s, in which people organized to demand equal rights for African Americans and other minorities. People worked together to change unfair laws. They gave speeches, marched in the streets, and participated in boycotts.