Chemistry 20 Chapter 1 (Intro, Topics 1 & 2)

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Terms in this set (...)

alkali metals
element in Group 1 of the periodic table; is highly reactive and reacts explosively with water
alkaline earth metal
element in Group 2 of the periodic table; is not as reactive as the alkali metals, but is nevertheless quite reactive
atomic molar mass
mass of one mole of atoms of the element' a weighted average of the molar masses of the naturally occurring isotopes of the element
atomic number
number of protons in the nucleus
binary ionic compound
ionic compound that consists of two different elements, one metal and one non-metal, grouped together in a lattice structure
covalent bond
electrostatic attraction between the nuclei of two adjacent atoms (usually non-metal) and a pair of shared bonding electrons
electron dot diagram
model that consists of the chemical symbol for the element with dots representing the valence electrons (electrons in the lower, filled energy levels are not shown in these diagrams)
group
refers to the columns in a periodic table
halogen
any element in group 17 of the periodic table; e.g. fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I)
ionic bond
electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions
isotope
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
mass number
sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an element
noble gas
non-metal element in Group 18 of the periodic table; is almost completely unreactive
octet rule
rule stating that when bond form, the atoms gain, lose, or share electrons in such a way as to create a filled outer energy level containing eight electrons
period
refers to the rows in a periodic table
polyatomic ion
ion consisting of several atoms that are covalently bonded together and are charged
valence electrons
electron that occupies the outermost energy level of an atom
bonding pair
electron pair shared by two atoms in a molecule
electron dot diagram
model that consists of the chemical symbol for the element with dots representing the valence electrons (electrons in the lower, filled energy levels are not shown in these diagrams)
delocalized
refers to electrons that are free to move from one atom to the next
double bond
covalent bond that consists of two bonding pairs; two atoms sharing four electrons
covalent bond
electrostatic attraction between the nuclei of two adjacent atoms (usually non-metal) and a pair of shared bonding electrons
electron pair
two electrons in the same energy level of an atom that interact in a unique way that allows them to be closer together, rather than repelling each other as two negative electrons would normally do; are less likely to participate in bond formation than unpaired electrons
ionic bond
electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions
Lewis structure
electron dot diagram of a molecule
lone pair
two electrons in an atom's valence energy level that are paired but are not involved in covalent bonding within a molecule
main group elements
belonging to Groups 1, 2, and 13 through 18; for most of these elements, the number of valence electrons can be predicted from position of the element on the periodic table
metallic bonding
idealized type of bonding based on the attraction between metal ions and their delocalized valence electrons; all atoms share all the valence electrons
molecular compound
consists mainly of non-metal elements covalently bonded to one another
molecular formula
formula that gives the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule
nomenclature
naming of chemical compounds
octet rule
rule stating that when bond form, the atoms gain, lose, or share electrons in such a way as to create a filled outer energy level containing eight electrons
polyatomic ion
ion consisting of several atoms that are covalently bonded together and are charged
single bond
bond that consists of one electron pair
triple bond
covalent bond that consists of three bonding pairs of electrons
unpaired electron
in an atom, an electron that is not paired with another
valence electrons
electron that occupies the outermost energy level of an atom
bond dipole
bond in which the electrons spend more time around one atom (more electronegative) than the other atoms creating a partial positive charge at one end of the bond and a partial negative charge at the other end
electronegativity
relative measure of an atom's ability to attract the shared electrons in a chemical bond
electronegativity difference
difference in electronegativities between the atoms in a bond
non-polar covalent bond
bond in which electrons are equally shared between two atoms whose difference in electronegativity is zero
polar covalent bond
bond in which electrons are unequally shared between two atoms