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BIOLOGICAL BASES OF BEHAVIOUR
Terms in this set (79)
the study of the parts and functions of neurons.
a specialized cell transmitting nerve impulses; a nerve cell that receives and sends electrical signals over long distances within the body. A neuron receives electrical input signals from sensory cells and from other neurons.
Cell Body (soma)
part of a neuron containing the nucleus but not incorporating the axon and dendrites, also called soma.
wirelike/threadlike structure ending in the terminal buttons, extends from the cell body
fatty covering around the axon of some neurons that speeds neural impulses
Terminal buttons (also called end buttons, terminal branches of axon, and synaptic knobs)
of a neuron are the small knobs at the end of an axon that release chemicals called neurotransmitters
chemicals contained in terminal buttons that enable neurons to communicate. Neurotransmitters fit intro receptor sites on the dendrites of neurons like a key fits into a lock. They are also chemicals that communicate information throughout our brain and body. The brain uses neurotransmitters to tell your heart to beat, lungs to breath, stomach to digest. They can also affect mood, sleep, concentration, weight and can cause unfortunate symptoms
root like parts of the cell that stretch out from the cell body. Dendrites grow to make synaptic connections with other neurons
the space between the terminal buttons of one neuron and the dendrites of the next neuron
location on cell surface where certain molecule such as enzymes, neurotransmitters, or viruses interact with cellular components
a limit below which a stimulus causes no reaction
occurs when a neuron sends information down an axon, away from the cell body , action potentials are caused when different ions cross the neuron membrane.
the neuron either does not reach the threshold or a full action potential is fired
they are the kind of neurotransmitters that stimulate the brain
are those that calm the brain and help create balance, they balance mood and are easily consumed when excitatory neurotransmitters are overactive
chemical associated with memory, muscle contractions, and learning, lack of acetylcholine is associated with Alzheimer's disease
(Special Neurotransmitter) chemical associated with thought and pleasurable feelings, parkinson's disease is associated with deficits in dopamine where as schizophrenia is linked to excessive amounts of this chemical messenger. Is also responsible for our drive or desire to get things done.
chemical associated with emotions and pain perception, the body releases endorphins in response to fear or trauma, these chemical messengers are similar to opiate drugs like morphine but are significantly stronger
(Inhibitory Neurotransmitter) adequate amounts of serotonin are necessary for a stable mood and to balance excessive excitatory neurotransmitter firing in the brain. Stimulants cause depletion of serotonin over time. Serotonin also regulates many other processes such as carbohydrate cravings, sleep cycle, pain control and appropriate digestion.
(Inhibitory Neurotransmitter) when GABA is out of range, it is most likely that an excitatory neurotransmitter is firing too often in the brain , GABA is sent out to attempt to balance this stimulating over-firing
acknowledged to be the most important transmitter for normal brain function. nearly all excitatory neurons in the central nervous system are glutamatergic. Glutamate plays an important role in clinical neurology because elevated concentrations of extracellular glutamate, which is released as a result of neural injury, are toxic to neurons
Hormone secreted by a certain nerve endings of the sympathetic nervous system and by the medulla of the adrenal glands. Primary function is to help maintain a constant blood pressure by stimulating certain blood vessels to constrict when the blood pressure falls bellow normal This hormone leads to what is often called an adrenaline rush. This hormone helps the body to perform at optimal levels during such events. Norepinephrine gets released primarily are a preparatory hormone to get the body ready for the first stages of the emergency event. This allows the body to return to normally quickly if the perceived situation is a false alarm. If there is further improvement needed for the performance of the body then epinephrine will be released to increase these physiological effects.
Afferent neurons (or sensory neurons)
carry information from the nerves to the central nervous system
Efferent neurons (or motor neurons)
carry information from the brain and spinal cord to muscle fibres throughout the body
are responsible for communicating between different neurons in the body
Central nervous system (CNS)
is the processing centre for the nervous system. It receives information from and sends information to the peripheral nervous system. Two main organs of the CNS are the brain and the spinal cord. Both brain and spinal cord are protected by three layers of connective tissue called the meninges.
serves as the main pathway for information connecting the brain and peripheral nervous system. Human spinal cord is protected by bony spinal column. The spinal column is made up of bones called vertebrae.
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
There are two types of cells in the peripheral nervous system. These cells carry information to (sensory nervous cells) and from (motor nervous cells), the central nervous system (CNS).
Motor nervous system
cells carry information rom the CNS to organs, muscles and glands, it is divided into the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.
Somatic nervous system
controls skeletal muscle as well as external sensory organs such as the skin. This system is said to be voluntary because the responses can be controlled consciously. Reflex reactions of skeletal muscle however are an exception; these are involuntary reactions to external stimuli.
Autonomic nervous system (-involuntary nervous system)
portion of the nervous system that regulates involuntary processes. These are the processes that you do not purposely control. It is then divided into two basic segments: the parasympathetic and the sympathetic nervous system
Sympathetic nervous system
activates what is often termed the fight or flight response. When under emergency and stressful situations, the body begins to change in order to prepare you for the pending circumstances. Operates through a series of interconnected neurons.
Parasympathetic nervous system
(nicknamed 'the rest and digest' system) is the segment that assists with normal autonomic functions. You are normally in parasympathetic nervous system control for most of your existence.
Sensory Nervous System
sends information to the CNS from internal organs or from external stimuli.
Motor Nervous System
carries information from the CNS to organs, muscles, and glands.
Somatic Nervous System
controls skeletal muscle as well as external sensory organs.
Autonomic Nervous System
controls involuntary muscles, such as smooth and cardiac muscle.
controls activities that increase energy expenditures.
controls activities that conserve energy expenditures.
unpredictable happening often results in fatalities or physical damage to persons and or property
damage to body tissue
neurological test that uses an electronic monitoring device to measure and record electrical activity in the brain. EEG may be used; diagnosis and management of epilepsy, diagnosis of brain damage and disease, monitoring brain activity during surgery and to determine brain death
Computerized axial tomography (CAT or CT scan)
special x-ray tests that produce cross-sectional images of the body using x-rays and a computer. CT scan sees different levels of density and tissues inside a solid organ and can provide detailed information about the body. Including; the head (brain and it's vessels, eyes, inner ear and sinuses), chest (heart and lungs), skeletal system (neck,shoulder and spine), pelvis and hips, reproductive systems, bladder and gastrointestinal tract.
Magnetic resonance Imaging (MRI scan)
technique that uses a magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed images of the organs and tissues within your body. As you lie inside an MRI machine, the magnetic field temporarily realigns hydrogen atoms in your body. MRI scans produce detailed pictures of organs, soft tissues, bone and other internal body structures. Differences between normal and abnormal tissue is often clearer on an MRI image than a CT.
Positron emission tomography (PET scan)
nuclear medicine imagine test that uses a form of radioactive sugar to create images of body function and metabolism. PET imaging can be used to evaluate normal and abnormal biological function of cells and organs.
Functional MRI (fMRI)
functional neuroimaging procedure using MRI technology that measures brain activity by detaching changes associated with blood flow. This technique relies on the fact that cerebral blood flow and neuronal activation are joined.
The rear portion of the brain. The hindbrain is the region of the brain formed by pons, medulla oblongata and the cerebellum. These three structures dominate our autonomic/automated body systems, controlling everything from our heart to basic motor control.
section of the brain that helps transfer messages to the spinal cord and the thalamus in the brain from the body and; controls breathing, heart function, blood easel function, digestion, sneezing and swallowing. Sensory and motor neurons from the forebrain and midbrain travel through the medulla. It's functions are involuntary or done without thought, making is crucial to sustaining life. The medulla Oblongata is located at the lower part of the brain stem.
main function is to connect upper and lower parts of the brain. The Pons help relay messages from the cortex and cerebellum. Without the pons, the brain would not be able to function because messages would not be able to be transmitted. Also plays an important role in sleep and dreaming, where REM sleep, or the sleeping state where dreaming is most likely to occur has been proven to originate in the pons. The Pons is located in the area of the hindbrain that sits directly above the medulla oblongata.
Important for being able to perform everyday voluntary (done with purpose and intent) task such as walking and writing. It is also essential to balance and staying upright. Apart from being responsible for balance and coordination of muscles and the body, it is also one of the most identifiable parts of the brain due to it's unique shape and location. The cerebellum is located in the lower area of the brain below the pons.
is an area of the brain that is in the middle of two other reins: the forebrain and the hindbrain. The midbrain acts as the information superhighway connecting those two regions. It allows your brain to integrate sensory information from your eyes and ears with your muscle movements, allowing your body to use this information to make fine adjustments. This allows your body to use this information to make fine adjustments to your movements.
portion of the brain that is located in the central core of the brain stem. It passes through the medulla, pons and stops in the midbrain. Its functions are classified into four categories: motor control, sensory control, visceral control and control of consciousness.
is known as being the most recently developed portion of our brain. It controls everything from voluntary movement and the integration of sensory information to all our higher abstract thought; logic, speech and emotions. The forebrain is why humans are intellectually advanced.
diagnoses different sensory information that is being transmitted to the brain including; auditory, visual, tactile and gustatory signals. It then directs the sensory information to different parts and lobes of the cortex. IF this part of the brain is damaged, all sensory information would not be processed and result in sensory confusion. In short the thalamus is responsible for relaying information from the sensory receptors to proper areas of the brain where it may then be processed. The thalamus is found in part of the forebrain, but below the corpus callosum.
mainly responsible for behaviours such as hunger and thirst, as well as the maintenance of body temperature. This is know as motivational behaviour; it is the reason we know when we are hungry or thirsty. This part of the brain also controls the pituitary gland; which is the gland that controls all the other endocrine glands in the body.
responsible for the response and memory of emotions, especially fear. It is the reason we are afraid of things. It controls the way we react to certain stimuli or an event that causes and emotion that we see as potentially threatening dangerous. The amygdala is part of the limbic system at the end of the hippocampus.
is responsible for processing long term memory and emotional responses. It is a part of the limbic system, in each temporal lobe. It is also responsible for sending memories out to the appropriate part of the cerebral hemisphere for long term storage and retrieving them when necessary.
Is a set of structures located above the brainstem and below the cortex. It involves many of our emotions and motivations, especially those related to survival. The limbic system is also involved in feelings or pleasure that are related to our survival. Certain structures of the limbic system are involved in memory; the amygdala and hippocampus. The limbic system is responsible for controlling various function s in the body include; interpreting emotional responses , storing memories and relating hormones. It is also involved with sensory perception, motor function and olfaction. Parts of the Limbic system; Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Amygdala, and Hippocampus.
is divided into lobes that each have a specific function. Most of the actual information processing in the brain takes place in the cerebral cortex. It is the largest part of the human brain that surrounds most of the other brain structures. (Frontal lobe, Parietal Lobe, Temporal Lobe, Occipital Lobe)
the cerebral hemispheres are the two halves of the physical brain or cerebrum. They are connected by a band of tissue called the corpus callosum that coordinates activity between the two hemispheres.
Responsible for control of the right side of the body (contralateral control) and is the more academic and logical side of the brain.
responsible for control of the left side of the body and is the more artistic and creative side of the brain. Although it coordinates the left side of the body and performs tasks having to do with creativity and the arts, both hemispheres are connected by the corpus callosum.
Brain lateralization (or hemispheric specialization)
the human brain is divided into two hemispheres; left and right hemispheres. Lateralization of brain functions mean that there are certain mental processes that are mainly specialized to one side or the other. Majority of the mental functions are distributed across the hemispheres, although there are specific processes dedicated to one hemisphere. i.e both sides perform the functions related to language, while understanding the emotional content of language is a function of the right hemisphere.
part of the mind that allows communication between the two hemispheres of the bran,. Apart from connecting the right and left hemispheres of the brain, it is responsible for transmitting neural messages between both the right and left hemispheres. It is located above the thalamus and under the cortex.
lobe comes from the Greek lobos meaning " small rounded projection" long applied only to the familiar round projection at the base of the ear- earlobe.
Association area (Association Cortex)
any area of the cerebral cortex not associated with receiving sensory information or controlling muscle movements is labeled as an association area.
the frontal lobe is where our personality is formed and where we can carry out higher mental processes such as thinking, decision making and planning. The frontal lobe is necessary to being able to speak fluently and meaningfully.
one of the main areas of the cerebral cortex responsible for producing language. This region of the brain was named for the french neurosurgeon Paul Broca who discovered the function of Broca's area while examining the brains of patients with language difficulties. This area control motor functions involved with speech production. People with damage to Broca's area of the brain can understand language but cannot properly from words or produce. speech. Function; speech production, facial neuron control, and language processing. It is located in the lower portion of the left frontal lobe.
is the region of the brain where spoken language is understood. Neurologist Carl Wernicke discovered the function of this brain region. Functions include: language comprehension, semantic processing, language recognition and language interpretation. Wernicke's area is located in the left temporal lobe, posterior to the primary auditory complex.
refers to the part of the brain where nerve cells are egged in planning and direction the actions of muscles and glands that are under conscious control. e.g person lifting weights, has the motor cortex sending orders though chain of nerves to the biceps muscles, resulting in movement (lifting the weight) and at the same time sweat glands of the upper arms are engaged and start sweating
has to be able to process sensory information within seconds; taste, temperature and touch. The parietal lobe is where this information is integrated/processed. It can be found in the upper, back part of the cortex.
Sensory cortex (SENSORY COMPLEX)
is a blanket term used to refer to all the senses; sight, sound, touch, taste and smell.
is responsible for processing visual information from the eyes. It is located at the back part of the cortex.
receives sensory information such as sounds and speech from the ears. It is essential in being able to comprehend and understand meaningful speech. The temporal lobe makes sense of all the different sounds and pitches being transmitted from the sensory receptors of the ears.
also known as neuroplasticity or cotical remapping; refers to the brain's ability to change and adapt as a result of experience.
information travels through our bodies in two forms; electrical signals or chemical signals. Chemical signals are created and carried throughout the body using the endocrine system. System works more slowly than the electrical signals, and is made up of glands that secret hormones (carriers of the information) in the bloodstream/.
twins resulting from one zygote that at an early stage of development separated into independently growing cell aggregations giving rise to two individuals of the same sex and identical genetic constitution.
adrenal gland, located on top of the kidneys is made up of two parts. The adrenal cortex is the outer part of the gland and it produces hormones that help regulate metabolism and immune response, among other things. The inner part of the gland; called the adrenal medulla, secretes important hormones for coping with stress. It releases of adrenalin (or epinephrine) that triggers the "fight or flight" response.
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