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S9 Unit B: Matter and Chemical Change
Terms in this set (63)
Solid to liquid; constant temperature
vaporization that occurs at the surface of a liquid that is not boiling
the process by which a gas changes to a liquid
Change of matter from a liquid state to a solid state
solid to gas
gas to solid
a state of matter (in fact the most common state of matter) made from a gas that has lost its electrons from heat.
melting point, boiling point, harness, malleability, ductility, crystal shape, solubility, density, conductivity
appearance or state may be altered, but the composition stays the same
reaction with acids, ability to burn, reaction with water, behaviour in air, reaction to heat
the formation of a different substance or substances.
made of only one kind of matter that has a unique set of properties
material that cannot be broken down into any simpler substances
two or more elements combine chemically (specific fixed proportions)
combination of pure substances, do not combine chemically
different substances in a mixture are visible
different substance that make it up are not separately visible
cloudy mixture which tiny particles of a substance are held within another.
cloudy mixture but the particles of the suspended substance are so small they cannot be separated out.
evidence of chemical change
change in colour, change in odour, formation of a solid or gas, exothermic or endothermic
evidence of physical change
change in state
Meal Ready to Eat- freeze dried food developed by US army
arabic word for "chemist" aka alchemy
Particles made of smaller, subatomic particles called protons, neutrons and electrons.
Negatively charged particles, orbiting atoms in shells
raisin bun model- atom as a positive sphere with electrons scattered through it
electron shells- electrons move in specific circular orbits or electron shells
Positively charged particles in the nucleus of an atom
a subatomic particle that has no charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
the central core of an atom that contains the protons and neutrons
Billard Ball Theory- atoms were solid spheres
idea was that electons (-) orbited in a ring around the clump of protons (+)(nucleus), much like the planets orbit around the sun
average mass of 1 atom in amu (atomic mass unit)
scientist who developed the first periodic table of elements based on properties
horizontal rows numbered 1-7 on the periodic table
vertical column of the periodic table numbered 1-18
sum of number of protons + number of neutrons
atoms that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
shiny, malleable and ductile elements
dull, brittle, nonconducting elements
Located along stair step on periodic table; has some characteristics of metals and some characteristics of nonmetals.
The chemical elements found in Group 1 of the periodic table and are highly reactive elements.
Alkaline- Earth metals
chemical elements found in Group 2 of the periodic table, react when exposed to air and water but not as strong as earth metals
inert gases, have full octet therefore not very reactive
indicates the relative number of atoms of each kind in a chemical compound
pure substance formed between particles, ions, of opposite charges (metal and nonmetal)
ions formed when certain atoms of elements combine example: (OH⁻)
example of an ionic compound
non-metals combine to form compounds. Use prefixes to indicate how many atoms of each element are in the compound.
takes place when two or more substance combine to form new substances
the materials at the start of a reaction
new materials produced by athe reaction
chemical reaction that releases heat energy
chemical reaction that absorbs heat energy
A reaction in which oxygen combines with a substance and releases heat and light energy
slow chemical change that occurs when oxygen in the air reacts with a metal eg. rust
chemical reaction that takes place in the cells of your body.
food + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water + energy
conservation of mass
matter is not created or destroyed in a chemical reaction
experiment where no additional material is allowed to enter or leave the system
The system can exchange both the energy and matter with the surroundings. Ex: pot of boiling water.
substances that help a reaction proceed faster
Proteins that act as a biological catalyst
Factors affect Rate of Reaction
concentration, temperature, surface area
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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