IAT 201 Exam 4 Reading Terms
Terms in this set (51)
The area of social psychology that focuses on how people think about others and the social world (including making judgements, forming attitudes, and making predictions about the future)
Mental model/representation of any of the various things we come across in our daily lives (how we expect something to behave based on direct encounters and secondhand sources). Can be about people, self, events, objects...
Mental shortcuts that reduce complex problem-solving to more simple, rule-based decisions
A heuristic in which the likelihood of an object belonging to a category is evaluated based on the extent to which the object appears similar to one's mental representation of the category (this can clash with statistical likelihoods).
Used to judge the likelihood that things will happen, but can be misrepresented by our available memories.
An instance in which our self-evaluations are overconfident, and we underestimate how much time a task will take.
Predicting how we will feel about certain outcomes (affects decision-making). We are good at predicting positive vs. negative emotions, but not the emotion's strength or duration.
The tendency for a person to overestimate the intensity of their future feelings.
The tendency for a person to overestimate how long positive/negative events will affect them
The mental processes that are influenced by desires and feelings.
Motivation to reach a particular outcome or judgement.
A result of our goals: when we are skeptical of any evidence that goes against what we want to believe.
Need for closure
The desire to come to a firm conclusion, often induced by time constraints.
The tendency to recall memories similar in valence to our current mood.
Unintentional, uncontrollable, occurs outside of conscious awareness, or is cognitively efficient. Some behaviours are inherently automatic (e.g. we quickly detect negative stimuli).
Non-consciously mimicking the postures, mannerisms, facial expressions, and other behaviours of interaction partners
Behaviours that are made more accessible when exposed to a strongly associated concept (works both behaviour->concept and vice versa)
Psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favour or disfavour.
Explicit attitude measures
Traditional method of measuring attitudes in which individuals are simply asked about their feelings on a subject; however, individuals aren't always award of their true attitudes, are undecided, or haven't thought about it.
An attitude which a person does not overtly/verbally express.
Implicit measures of attitudes
Method of measuring attitudes which relies on inference rather than direct questioning.
Implicit association test (IAT)
Measures how quickly the participant pairs a concept (e.g. cats) with an attribute (e.g. good/bad).
Evaluative priming task
Measures how the participant pairs a concept with an attribute, but after viewing a strongly positive or negative image
Theory of mind
The human capacity to understand minds, made up of a collection of concepts and processes. Helps to frame and interpret perceptions of human behaviour as those of agents who can act intentionally and have desires, beliefs, and other mental states that guide their actions. Also assists people in engaging in complex interactions inherent in our cultures.
Have a severely limited capacity for theory of mind, since they don't automatically process "people information", but rather, analytical information.
A category of what humans identify as moving objects that can act on their own; directed toward goal objects (which lends them predictability).
The actions of an agent are aimed at achieving/reaching their goal; however, we must recognize that people can do things unintentionally or not have the skill or luck to reach their goal
The human tendency to carefully observe others' behaviour and do as they do (even if it is the observer's first time seeing the action)
A subtle, automatic form of imitation.
When people mutually mimic each other.
Your selective monkey-see, monkey-do instinct. Responsible for synchrony/mimicry, which occur most when people are enjoying their interactions.
A social perceiver unwittingly taking on the internal environment of another person (usually thru mimicking their physical behaviours)
The awareness that both you and another person are engaged in the same object (helps children learn the value and words for objects).
Visual perspective taking
To "look" at something (mentally) from someone else's perspective (e.g. saying "to YOUR left")
Using one's own mental states as a model for others' mental states (e.g. "How would I feel if...")
The assumption that the other person's feelings are the same as yours (an extension of simulation); this is a problem when our backgrounds, knowledge, and goals differ
Explicit mental state inference
in order to truly take in someone else's perspective, we use both general knowledge and agent-specific knowledge, as well as perceived facts (this doesn't develop till at least age 4, and takes some cognitive effort from adults)
An experimental procedure that assesses whether a person recognizes that another person has a false belief.
Feelings of self-worth that are based on evaluation of relationships with others and membership in social groups.
Common knowledge effect
The tendency for groups to spend more time discussing information that all members know (shared information) and less time examining information that only a few members know (unshared).
The solidarity or unity of a group resulting from the development of strong and mutual interpersonal bonds among members and group-level forces that unify the group, such as shared commitment to group goals.
The tendency for members of a deliberating group to move to a more extreme position, with the direction of the shift determined by the majority or average of the members' pre-deliberation preferences.
A set of negative group-level processes, including illusions of invulnerability, self-censorship, and pressures to conform, that occur when highly cohesive groups seek concurrence when making a decision
Excluding one or more individuals from a group by reducing or eliminating contact with the person, usually by ignoring, shunning, or explicitly banishing them.
Shared mental model
Knowledge, expectations, conceptualizations, and other cognitive representations that members of a group have in common pertaining to the group and its members, tasks, procedures, and resources.
The process of contrasting one's personal qualities and outcomes, including beliefs, attitudes, values, abilities, accomplishments, and experiences, to those of other people.
Improvement in task performance that occurs when people work in the presence of other people.
Social identity theory
A theoretical analysis of group processes and intergroup relations that assumes groups influence their members' self-concepts and self-esteem, particularly when individuals categorize themselves as group members and identify with the group.
The reduction of individual effort exerted when people work in groups compared with when they work alone.
A conceptual analysis of self-evaluation processes that theorizes self esteem functions to psychologically monitor of one's degree of inclusion and exclusion in social groups.
The process by which members of the team combine their knowledge, skills, abilities, and other resources through a coordinated series of actions to produce an outcome.
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