Social studies definitions
Terms in this set (87)
The variety of life on Earth; "bio" means Earth and diversity means variety.
Logging by removing all trees from a large area
The process of making something dirty, polluted, or poisonous by adding a chemical, waste, or infection
To clear a forest from an area
To have control over an area or territory. In this view humans are the most intelligent creatures on Earth and can freely use nature's riches. Land ownership is exclusive and resources from an area are for the owner's profit.
economy centred and a well-being of a country
A philosophy or perspective that places intrinsic value on all living organisms and their natural environment, regardless of their perceived usefulness or importance to human beings.
A risk of becoming extinct
Occurs when a habitat is still exsiscent, however can no longer meet the needs of the species it once supported
Habitat destruction is the process in which natural habitat is rendered unable to support the species present. In this process, the organisms that previously used the site are displaced or destroyed.
the natural home or environment of an animal, plant, or other organism.
Resources that can replace themselves as long as we use them carefully
The Earth and its resources are used carefully. Reservations for the future is important, because it must be passed on to the next Generation as healthy as it was before.
(To take more of something than can grow back on its own) Overharvesting, also called overexploitation, refers to harvesting a renewable resource to the point of diminishing returns
Using resources in a way that uses them up and/or destroy them for a long time.
An area or ridge of land that separates waters flowing to different rivers, basins, or seas.
An approach that is revolves around people
(of a substance or object) capable of being decomposed by bacteria or other living organisms.
Body of water / water body
Any significant accumulation of water, generally on a planet's surface.
The gas that people and animals breathe out after we breathe in oxygen. It is also produced whenever we burn anything (wood, gas, oil, etc.) It is also the main gas that causes the Greenhouse Effect, Global Warming and Climate Change. The best way to get rid of it is by having lots of trees and healthy oceans. (And we need not to produce as much carbon dioxide in the first place, by using less oil and gas.)
An approach that uses resources wisely in order to continue using them for a long time.
Saving the Earth's natural resources by protecting them and using them in sustainable ways.
Contaminants, contamination, contaminated
Chemicals that are not supposed to be in a substance; usually they are poisonous or not good for you, or cause some other kind of problem. e.g. If some gasoline got in your water, that would be a contaminant.
Crown land p. G37-38; slides
A land owned by the province of Ontario , but leased to logging companies for timber cutting.
Degraded (& Degradation)
Become less good
Change from fertile land to Desert
Drainage basin (watershed)
The area drained by a river system (an area of land where all surface water from rain, melting snow, or ice converges to a single point at a lower elevation)
A prolonged period of abnormally low rainfall; a shortage of water resulting from this.
An area of land where vegetation has been lost and soil reduced to dust and eroded, especially as a consequence of drought or unsuitable farming practice.
Interactions that link living and nonliving parts of the environment.
To enjoy nature with a low impact on the environment, to promote conservation, and promote local people
Loss of all individuals of a species.
Very rich in nutrients, very good for growing plants on - good places to grow crops for food or other uses.
Resources that are replaced by natural actions whether people use them or not. Wind; ocean currents, flowing rivers, and streams; and sunlight are all flow resources. Flow resources move around due to natural actions in the environment. They must be used where they are found as they cannot be captured or stored.
The process that verifies forest are managed and harvested in an environmentally and socially responsible manner
The science or practice of planting, managing, and caring for forests.
An approach that views the natural world as existing for human use. In other words, it is all about what people want and need
To be sustainable, they want to sell 'Good Wood'. It must meet standards for:
- social practices (people)
- economic practices (jobs & money)
- environmental practices (environment)
Renewable resources mean the economy and jobs are more sustainable in the long term.
Green' means environmentally friendly. Green economy = making money without harming the environment.
Water that is kept or moving beneath Earth's surface
Occurs when a habitat can no longer meet the needs of the species it once supported
Humus (pronounced HEW-muss)
Decaying plants or animals that are found in the top layer of soil
Growth of the sector of an economy made up of manufacturing enterprises:
If a specie can adapt to a new location it can become an invasive species, threatening native species.
Landslide (Tree slides)
(Type of erosion) The sliding down of a mass of earth or rock from a mountain or cliff.
Cut and prepare forest timber for transport and sale.
= To make less bad. e.g. Tylenol mitigates pain; forests help to mitigate climate change. They do this by storing carbon inside the wood. As long as you don't burn the wood, this carbon stays out of the atmosphere. So using more wood actually helps prevent climate change!
Species that develop naturally in an area
Materials we find in nature that we find useful or valuable. They are very important in our daily lives and help us meet our needs and wants.
Plants that are natural to an area and grow freely there.
Species that are not natural to an environment but has been moved, or introduced into it
Resources that are limited supply. Once we use these resources, they are gone. They cannot be replaced. Non renewable resources include minerals such as gold, iron, and nickels, and fossil fuels such as oil and coal. These resources are created under a particular set of conditions and take thousands- in some cases millions- of years to be ready to use
Forests made of trees that are hundreds of years old. They cannot grow back quickly if they are cut down. They provide special types of habitat to many species that do not live anywhere else.
Composed of the remains of animals and plants and the waste products the organisms leave in the environment
Put animals in a pasture to graze
Contaminate (water, air, or a place) with harmful or poisonous substances.
When condensed substances in the atmosphere get pulled down by the gravitational force.
An approach that states resources should be preserved, set aside, and protected
A region set aside to protect and preserve natural resources
The name for natural resources before they are processed
convert (waste) into reusable material.
Control or supervise (something, especially a company or business activity) by means of rules and regulations.
Move to a new place and establish one's home or business there.
The use of a resource until there is none left.
Something that is useful to people
Revenue / profit
A financial gain, especially the difference between the amount earned and the amount spent in buying, operating, or producing something.
Runoff (water cycle)
Runoff is precipitation that did not get (infiltrated) absorbed into the soil, or did not evaporate, and therefore, made its way from the ground surface into places that water collect. Runoff causes erosion, and also carry chemicals and substances on the ground surface along to the rivers where the water ends up.
Young trees (from tiny pencil-thick shoots, up to small trees the thickness of your arm)
Matter that settles to the bottom of a liquid
Companies harvest only the mature trees, individually or in small groups, leaving much of the forest behind. However, many smaller trees are damaged when larger ones are felled or dragged out of the woods. Seedlings are not required, but this is the most dangerous and costly logging method
Shelterwood cutting G146
Companies clear-cut small areas in forest where trees are the same general species and age. They leave small patches untouched, to provide seeds to regenerate a more natural forest in the logged over area. Planting of new seedlings may not be required, depending on the amount of clear-cutting done.
Companies prefer clear cutting, claiming it is the cheapest, fastest, and safest for gathering wood. Every tree over large areas cut down, starting from one side, and usable timber as it taken away. New seedlings of one fast-growing tree species are then planted for future logging and to reduce erosion. (Logging by removing all trees from a large area )
Water becomes dirty as a result of fine mineral particles in the water.
Loss of soil quality and ability to grow plants.
Soil fertility p.117
How many nutrients there are in the soil that can help plants grow. How nutritious the soil is for plants.
Soil stabilization (slides)
Growth of an industry. E.g. increase in factories to expand
The flow of water that occurs when excess stormwater, meltwater, or other sources flows over the Earth's surface.
Gathering and processing resources, then disposing of waste without harming the Earth; and consuming resources at a rate that saves plenty for future generations to use
An approach using resources in a way that does not use them up or destroy them for a long time.
The use of scientific knowledge and skills for useful, practical purposes to meet the needs and goals of people
To wander around, eating grass
To grow again / grow back
Transpiration (water cycle)
The process by which moisture is carried through plants from roots to small pores on the underside of leaves, where it changes to vapour and is released to the atmosphere.
Water table (the water table)
The top layer of groundwater
Watershed (better known as a drainage basin)
an area or ridge of land that separates waters flowing to different rivers, basins, or seas.
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