Chapter 3 (Stress)
Terms in this set (45)
What is mindfulness?
What are some advantages of mindfulness?
feeling of grounded, more focused, reducing anxiety, stress depression, etc.
What is stress defined as?
the general physical and emotional state that accompanies the stress response
What are the two components of stress?
1. situations that trigger physical and emotional reactions (stressors)
2. the reactions themselves (stress response)
What is the primary determinant of health consequences of stress?
How the individual responds to stress
What are common categories of responses to stressors and examples?
1) physical - HR, breathing, slower digestion, sweat, pupils dilate,
2) emotional/behavioral - crying, anger, sleeping/eating
What two control systems are responsible for the physical response to stressors?
1) nervous system
2) endocrine system
Which system within the autonomic nervous system takes control in a stressful situation?
What does it do?
Sympathetic nervous system
- releases norepinephrine to mobilize energy resources to respond to crisis and causes arousal
What is the autonomic nervous system?
Part of nervous system that is not under conscious supervision
What are the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system?
Parasympathetic and sympathetic
What is the parasympathetic system responsible for?
- in control when you are relaxed
- aiding in digestion, storing energy
What is the function of the endocrine system?
system of glands, tissues, and cells that help control body functions by releasing hormones and other chemical messengers into the bloodstream
helps body prepare for a stressful situation
neurochemical message sent to _______________which releases chemicals to ___________ ____________ which produces_________ into bloodstream
neurochemical message sent to hypothalamus which releases chemicals to pituitary gland which produces ACTH into bloodstream
ACTH reaches ________________, which releases ______________
adrenal gland, cortisol
adrenal glands release _____________________, which cause several bodily changes such as ........................
acute hearing and vision, increased HR, increased perspiration, etc.
What idea did Sir Walter Cannon come up with?
What is homeostasis?
a state in which blood pressure, HR, horomes and other vital functions are maintained within a normal range
What brings the body back to homeostasis after a stressful event?
The parasympathetic nervous system
Describe the modern fight-or-flight response
we go into flight-or-flight more than necessary, for non-life threatening events
What is the tend-and-befriend response? How is it produced?
idea that humans may respond to stress with social and nurturant behaviors
depends on biological mechanisms such as oxytocin
Which gender experience a higher prevelance of the tend-and-befriend response?
What did Hans Selye develop?
General adaptation syndrome (GAS) to explain stress and disease.
What is eustress?
What is distress?
T/F: stress goes through different stages depending on whether the stress is positive or negative
false, our body goes through the same 3 stages
What are the 3 stages of the GAS?
1) Alarm (immediate) - fight/flight, more susceptible to disease
2) Resistance (continued)- allows us to counter physiological changes (homeostasis), helps fight disease
3) Exhaustion (prolonged) - physiological exhaustion, low resistance to disease, distorted perceptions/thinking
What stage of the GAS does the endocrine system come into play?
resistance stage (stage 2)
What are some criticisms of the general adaptation syndrome?
- limited to physiological factors (ignores psychological factors)
- assumes that responses to stress are uniform
What is an "allostatic load"?
- long-term wear and tear of the stress response
- makes you more susceptible to disease
- don't have resources left to deal with stress
What factors explain stress and disease?
1) General Adaptation Syndrome
2) Allostatic Response
What type of health problems can arise from long-term exposure to stress hormones?
high blood pressure, diabetes, CVD, heart disease, hypertension, decreased brain functioning
*** - weight gain in lower stomach
What is "psychoneuroimmunology"?
- study of psychological processes and the nervous/immune systems
- stress impairs the immune system thereby affecting health
What are the effects of acute/chronic stress on the immune system?
Acute stress - enhances immune response
Chronic stress - negative effects on immunity
Is there a lot of research on psychoneuroimmunology with humans?
No, most is done with rats currently
What are some short term effects stress has on health?
colds, infections, headaches, stiff neck, stomacheache, allergies
What are some long term effects of stress on health?
CVD, high blood pressure, impaired immune function, typer 2 diabetes, psychological problems
How does the Dalai Lama interpret stress?
- stress leads to negative emotions such as fear, jealousy and anger, which leads to violence
- believes world peace begins with inner peace, tolerance and compassion
Is stress bad?
can be, but can also be a positive driver if you know how to control it
Situations that trigger physical and emotional responses are termed:
a) Stress responses
c) Unmanaged stress
B - stressors
The hormone released by the pituitary gland during the stress response is:
C - ACTH
T/F: The flight-or-flight reaction occurs during the exhaustion stage of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS)?
False, it occurs during the alarm stage
T/F: The physical response to a stressor has very little variance in intensity from person to person
False, there is a lot of variance
Which of the following is not a physiologic response to stress?
A. Decreased clotting time
B. Decreased salivation
D. Altered immune response
T/F: High allostatic load can be the cause to life threatening conditions such as a stroke or heart attack
Sleep apnea is a sleep problem involving the inability to fall asleep or stay asleep
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