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Chapter 5: Goal Setting
Terms in this set (51)
What domains has goal setting been examined in?
What is a goal?
That which one wants to accomplish; it concerns a valued, future end state
A goal represents a valued objective to individuals, goal setting should act as an incentive towards?
What are the 3 types of goals individuals set?
1. outcome goals
2. performance goals
3. process goals
-focus on social comparisons and standards of success
-often dependent on the ability and performance of others
-not fully in control
-focus on improving and attaining personal performance standards
-based on the self
-focus on specific procedures an individual wants to improve
-this could later influnce other goals
What are SMART goals?
-clear and narrow behavioral targets
-type and amount of effort
-to assess progress
-but challenging to increase effort, persistence, and concentration
-select a point in time for goals to be achieved
What are proximal goals and how do you set them?
-breaking goals into steps
-reducing large, distant goals into smaller sub-goals (short term goals)
-more easily achieved
Why does goals setting work?
1. Directs action by focusing attention
2. Increases effort and intensity
3. Encourages persistence in the face of adversity
4. Promotes the development of new task or problem-solving strategies
When is goal setting the most effective?
1. When people are committed to achieving their goals
-commitment is increased when attaining the goal is particularly important to the goal setter
-when the goal setter believes that it's attainable (high SE)
2. When goals are evaluated on a regular basis
Is goal setting common in sports?
-it's the most commonly used performance-enhancement strategy in sport psychology
How do athletes rate their goals in enhancing sport performance and why?
1. they don't acknowledge the goals they have set for themselves
2. they are uncertain about how to effectively set goals
How difficult should goals be set? What have studies shown about setting goals?
-moderately difficult goals
-78% of studies have shown moderate-strong effects of goal setting behavior
How do goals differ in training vs. competition?
Types of goals set in these situations may be different
Do goal setting interventions target groups or individuals?
What performance behaviours were assessed on the rugby players (study about the effect of goal setting on selected performance behaviours)
1. number of ball carries
2. number of tackles- made or missed
3. successful kicks
4. number of turnovers won
Methods of rugby goal setting
3 stage intervention:
1. goal determination
-player chose one behaviour to improve on
2. goal setting
3. goal reviewing
-review with researcher
What were the results of the rugby goal setting study?
Post intervention performance improved for all participants
Player 1: 77% increase in ball carries per game
Player 2: 32% increase in number of tackles made
Player 3: 55% decrease in his tackles missed
Player 4: 26% increase in successful kicks
Player 5: 118% increase in turnovers won
How does team goal setting differ from individual goal setting?
-It attempts to foster respect and cohesiveness among the team members
-attempts to help the team with focus and direction
What is social loafing?
A phenomenon in which people working together on a task tend to exert less individual effort than when they perform the same task alone
How does social loafing result from team goal setting?
Team goals without accompanying individual goals may reduce performance by promoting social loafing
What were results of the study in which researchers wanted to determine if a season-long team goal setting intervention influenced team cohesion?
-goal-setting players were significantly higher in team cohesion than control
-control group's decreased, while intervention group's team cohesion was maintained
If athletes set measurable goals, what do they then need to determine?
1. what these goals should be
2. current performance standards (how they presently perform)
What is a possible approach to determining what goals should be and what one's performance standards are?
What makes up the performance profiling procedure?
1. completed performance profile in a circular chart or column chart
-reinforces the basic procedure
-emphasizes what will be gained from the process
2. generation of qualities that underpin athletic performance in the sport in question
-have athlete answer "what are qualities of an elite athlete in this sport?"
-generate a list of qualities (technical, physical, psychological, and tactical)
3. athlete's self-assessment of their ability in each attribute
-rate their perception of their ability from 1-10
What are benefits of performance profiling?
-provides a visual display of athlete's perceived strengths and weaknesses
-goals can then be set around weaknesses
When should athletes set goals?
Practice and competition!
What have studies on goal setting for health behaviour change shown?
People perform better when their goals are more challenging
What were the results of the study on standard behaviour therapy treatment for obesity? Why?
-groups were randomly assigned to either a standard or high exercise goal
-the group with high exercise goals engaged in more PA
-this is becuase the goals they started with were maintained- hard to keep upping your goals
What theory is exercise goal content highly grounded in?
Self determination theory
According to SDT, what can make up goal content?
1. intrinsic goals:
-developing personal interests and values
-inherently satisfying to pursue
2. extrinsic goals
-pursuit of external worth
-money, fame, material items
In the exercise domain, what are intrinsic goals related to?
1. health management
2. skill development
3. social affiliation (personal development)
4. exercise class attendance
5. workout enjoyment
6. behavioral persistence
7. negatively with social physique anxiety
In the exercise domain, what are extrinsic goals related to?
1. image improvement
2. social recognition
3. indices of being ill
4. social physique anxiety
7. exercise adherence
The degree to which a person is confident in his or her ability to meet a goal
How is goal efficacy related to goal achievement?
People who are more confident in their ability to meet their exercise goals at the onset of the program perceive themselves more successful in obtaining goals at the end of the program
Who sets goals in exercise programs? Who should set them?
-often trainers and health care professionals set goals for patients
self and collaboratively set goals are better than assigned goals
What are mutually facilitative goals?
The idea that exercise and other goals may facilitate each other
How do mutually facilitative goals affect exercise?
-goals conflict with each other in life and in exercise
-when they are congruent with each other, the amount of exercise one does significantly increases!
What are common additions to goal setting interventions?
1. Self monitory
2. Educational resources
When is goal setting especially important in injury rehab?
The longer the rehab process is
Are short or long term goals good for injury rehab? Why?
Short term goals are better
1. achievement provides positive reinforcement that recovery is progressing
2. gives athlete a sense of control
3. gives athlete positive outlook
What objectives should short-term goals in injury rehab include and at what point in rehab?
Early in rehab:
-process goals are more salient while athletes work on executing specific movements (basic mobility, larger ROM)
Later in rehab:
-performance goals may be set to reflect milestones (achieving a strength level or running length)
Why is goal setting additionally affective in injury rehab?
1. reduces anxiety
2. promotes greater perceptions of control
3. fosters more positvie outcome attributions (attribute success to themselves)
What were the results of the study on the relationship b/w goal setting and knee extension strength?
-both goal-setting groups performed better on trials 3 and 4 compared to the control group
-significant correlation between performance, self-efficacy, and self-satisfaction
How does SE relate to goal setting in rehab?
Higher SE prompts people to set higher personal goals associated with beter performance
How does goal setting relate to rehab adherence?
Goal setting significantly improved adherence and increased self-efficacy for rehabilitation
Researchers have found that goal setting is the most important stretegy for what in injured atheltes?
Helping athletes transition from recovery to performance back into competition
What is the process that athletes and therapists follow when setting goals?
-immediately after injury
-identify expectations of recovery timelines and rehab milestones
-medical team must ensure athlete has realistic expectations
-athlete must communicate their priorities to the therapist
-goals must be meaningful to the athlete and the therapist for max. success
-goals monitored through treatment
-athlete and therapist are responsible for supporting the achievement of set goals during this phase
-measuring progress toward set goals
-provision of feedback regarding success and setback
Of all psychological interventions, what is most commonly used in injury rehab?
General recommendations for goal setting:
1. set SMART goals
2. progress should be evaluated on a regular basis
3. write down goals and make them public
4. set goals in collaboration with others
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