ABS mastering chpt 18
Terms in this set (44)
A researcher heats a solution of DNA and notices that as the temperature increases, the absorbance of ultraviolet light at 260 nm increases dramatically. This is because
the double strands of DNA are separating
One strand of a region of DNA has the sequence 5'-ATTCCG-3'. The complementary strand for this one is
Restriction enzymes are endonucleases that cut the phosphoester bonds (sugar-phosphate backbone) of DNA via facilitating a hydrolysis reaction.
You are asked to serve as a scientific expert in a murder trial. The defense claims that DNA fingerprinting lacks the precision to distinguish the DNA of one person from that of another, and therefore cannot be used to convict his client. Which of the following is a scientifically accurate response to this claim that validates the use of RFLP fingerprinting?
Though most people will have very small differences in their DNA sequence, the number of fragments and fragment sizes generated by restriction digests will be unique to each person.
There are an unlimited number of VNTR alleles for each locus, such that every individual has unique alleles at each VNTR locus.
There are many VNTR alleles for each locus but not an unlimited number. People who are closely related are more likely to have similar DNA fingerprints.
Why are multiple VNTR probes used in DNA fingerprinting?
They increase the probability of producing a DNA fingerprint that is unique to an individual.
Based on the nature of the interaction between DNA and histones, what is the most likely requirement for all DNA-binding proteins?
Most DNA-binding proteins would have a strong positive charge.
Which of these statements is NOT true of the nucleolus?
It is connected to the nucleus via nuclear pores
The specific field of study that examines the gene products of a genome is known as
You analyze a DNA sample and find that its base composition is 30% A, 20% T, 30% G, and 20% C. What can you conclude about the structure of this DNA?
Because A does not equal T, and G does not equal C, this cannot be a double-stranded DNA molecule. It must therefore be a single-stranded DNA.
For a double-stranded DNA molecule in which 40% of the bases are either G or C, what can you conclude about its content of the base A?
30% of the bases must be A.
For a double-stranded DNA molecule in which 40% of the bases are either G or T, what can you conclude about its content of the base A?
It is impossible to determine
Base sequence variations between individuals that result from point mutations are called
single nucleotide polymorphisms.
Which of the following are components of Chargaff's rules of bases?
A + C = G + T
G = C
C + T = A + G
purines = pyrimidines
Sucrose crosses the nuclear envelope so rapidly that its rate of movement cannot be accurately measured.
Unlike most membranes, the nuclear envelope appears to be freely permeable to a polar organic molecule.
Colloidal gold particles with a diameter of 5.5 nm equilibrate rapidly between the nucleus and cytoplasm when injected into an amoeba, but gold particles with a diameter of 15 nm do not.
The aqueous channels in nuclear pore complexes have diameters of at least 5.5 nm, but not as great as 15 nm.
Nuclear pore complexes sometimes stain heavily for RNA and protein.
The stained pores contain complexes of RNA and protein, probably ribonucleo-protein particles caught in transit.
If gold particles up to 26 nm in diameter are coated with a polypeptide containing a nuclear localization signal (NLS) and are then injected into the cytoplasm of a living cell, they are transported into the nucleus. If they are injected into the nucleus, however, they remain there.
The NLS only triggers transport from cytoplasm to nucleus, not from nucleus to cytoplasm, suggesting that NLS receptor proteins (importins) function only in the cytoplasm.
Many of the proteins of the nuclear envelope appear from electrophoretic analysis to be the same as those found in the endoplasmic reticulum.
The nuclear membranes and the endoplasmic reticulum are likely to have a common origin.
Ribosomal proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm but are packaged with rRNA into ribosomal subunits in the nucleus
Ribosomal proteins must pass inward from the cytoplasm to the nucleus at a rate adequate to sustain ribosomal subunit assembly; ribosomal subunits must move outward from the nucleus to the cytoplasm at a rate commensurate with their rate of assembly.
If nucleoli are irradiated with a microbeam of ultraviolet light, synthesis of ribosomal RNA is inhibited.
Nucleoli are probably responsible for rRNA synthesis.
Treatment of nuclei with the nonionic detergent Triton X-100 dissolves the nuclear envelope but leaves an otherwise intact nucleus.
The integrity of the nucleus does not seem to depend entirely on the envelope.
An example of a purine is
When examining a five-carbon sugar to determine if it is ribose or deoxyribose, one looks to see if there are two H on the _____ carbon in the structure.
DNA is different from RNA in that
RNA contains an additional oxygen atom on the ribose sugar.
The 5' end of a DNA molecule can be chemically distinguished from the 3' end because there is a(n) __________ group at the 5' end and a(n) __________ group at the 3' end.
DNA isolated from cow liver cells contains 28% A; what percent will be C?
Which of the following statements regarding the Watson-Crick model of DNA is not accurate?
It is a left-handed helix.
Circular DNA molecules found in nature (such as bacterial, viral, or mitochondrial DNA) are
Restriction enzymes typically recognize
specific palindromic sequences
The normal gene for hemoglobin was isolated, cloned, and subjected to restriction enzyme digestion with BamHI. Following gel electrophoresis, three bands are routinely obtained. However, following the same procedure with the hemoglobin gene from an individual with sickle-cell anemia, four bands are routinely obtained. These data suggest that
the mutation associated with sickle-cell anemia results in the gain of a BamHI cut site.
In the Sanger method of DNA sequencing, incorporation of the nucleotides stops because
the dideoxynucleotide analogs have no 3'-OH group to continue DNA synthesis.
You wish to use mRNA profiles to examine the genes of a cell that are ultimately translated into proteins during times of stress. As a result, you are investigating a portion of the cell's
Interspersed repeat DNA
constitutes 25-40% of most mammalian genome and occurs in gene families, such as the Alu family.
With regard to DNA packaging, prokaryotic chromosomes
use RNA to contribute to chromosomal packaging.
Which one of the following is not characteristic of prokaryotic genomes
presence of introns
You and your neighbor have how much difference in your DNA sequence?
Which of the following is the correct order of the levels of DNA packaging in eukaryotic chromosomes
nucleosome → chromatin fiber → looped domains → heterochromatin
The nuclear membrane functions as a
-means of sequestering many of the mRNA processing activities from the cytosol.
-means of localization of the chromosomes within the cell.
-selective barrier, allowing certain substances in or out.
-means of separating nuclear and cytoplasmic constituents.
You are using genetic engineering to design a protein that needs to be synthesized in the cytoplasm and then localized in the nucleus of the cell. To accomplish this, one could add
a nuclear localization signal into the DNA that will be present in the mature protein.
contains the NOR of rRNA genes.
Which of the following terms is used to indicate the entire set of RNA molecules that can be made by a cell?
With which organelle membrane would you expect to find the receptor protein importin?
formamide and urea are agents known to form hydrogen bonds with pyrimidines and purines. What effect, if any, would the inclusion of a small amount of formamide or urea in the incubation mixture have on the melting curves?
Formamide and urea destabilize the DNA duplex by forming hydrogen bonds to the bases of either strand, causing the duplex structure to melt at a considerably lower temperature.
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