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314 Chapter 10 - The Environment and Development
Terms in this set (32)
Increasing average air and ocean temperatures. Began in mid-twentieth century and attributed largely to human industrial, forestry, and agricultural activities emitting greenhouse gases.
Non-transient altering of underlying climate, such as increased average temperature, decreased annual precipitation, or greater average intensity of droughts or storms. References the impact of the global warming phenomenon.
The incorporation of environmental benefits and costs in to the quantitative analysis of economic activities.
The portion of a country's overall capital assets that directly relate to the environment (ex. forests, soil quality, and ground water)
A pattern of development that permits future generations to live at least as well as the current generation, generally requiring at least a minimum environmental protection.
Sustainable net national income (NNI*)
An environmental accounting measure of the total annual income that can be consumed without diminishing the overall capital assets of a nation (including environmental capital).
Environmental Kuznets curve
a graph reflecting the concept that pollution and other environmental degradation first rises and then falls with increases in income per capita.
Any combustible organic matter that may be used as fuel, such as firewood, dung, or agricultural residues.
The transformation of a region into dry, barren land with little or no capacity to sustain life without an artificial source of water.
Loss of valuable topsoils resulting from overuse of farmland, and deforestation and consequent flooding of farmland.
The clearing of forested land either for agricultural purposes or for logging and for use of firewood.
Total net benefit
The sum of net benefits to all consumers.
The addition to total cost incurred by the producer as a result of increasing output by one more unit.
Excess of what a producer of a good receives and the minimum amount the producer would be willing to accept because of a positive-sloping marginal cost curve.
Excess utility over price derived by consumers because of a negative-sloping demand curve.
The premium or additional rent charged for the use of a resource or good that is in fixed or limited supply.
The discounted value at the present time of a sum of money to be received in the future.
Marginal net benefit
The benefit derived from the last unit of a good minus its cost.
The acknowledged right to use and benefit from a tangible or intangible entity that may include owning, using, deriving income from, selling, and disposing.
Common Property Resource
A resource that is collectively or publicly owned and allocated under a system of unrestricted access, or as self-regulated by users.
Any benefit or cost borne by an individual economic unit that is a direct consequence of another's behavior.
The process whereby external environmental or other costs are borne by the producers or consumers who generate them, usually through the imposition of pollution or consumption taxes.
An entity that provides benefits to all individuals simultaneously and whose enjoyment by one person in no way diminishes that of another
An entity that imposes costs on groups of individuals simultaneously.
The situation in which people can secure benefits that someone else pays for.
Technologies that by design produce less pollution and waste and use resources more efficiently
the direct monetary outlays or costs of an individual economic unit.
a tax levied on the quantity of pollutants released into the physical environment
the full cost of an economic decision, whether private or public, to society as a whole.
The capacity of an ecosystem to assimilate potential pollutants.
Global Public Good
a public good, whose benefits reach across national borders and population groups
The exchange of foreign debt held by an organization for a larger quantity of domestic debt that is used to finance the preservation of a natural resource or environment in the debtor country.
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