Honors US History Unit 2 Terms

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The Articles of Confederation
An agreement among all thirteen original states in the United States of America that served as its first constitution. One house legislature (makes laws.) Each state had 1 vote in the Congress. No executive branch. No judicial branch. Congress, had no power to tax. Congress could raise money only by asking the states for funds, In addition, Congress could not draft soldiers or regulate trade. Under the Articles of Confederation, no provisions were made for an executive branch to enforce the laws nor for a national court system to interpret them. A legislative Congress was the sole organ of the national government, but it had no power to force the states to do anything against their will.
Northwest Ordinance
(1787) A law passed in 1787 to regulate the settlement of the Northwest Territory, established conditions for self-government and statehood, included a Bill of Rights, and permanently prohibited slavery.
Shay's Rebellion
(1787) Massachusetts farmer Daniel Shays and 1200 compatriots, seeking debt relief through issuance of paper currency and lower taxes, attempted to prevent courts from seizing property from indebted farmers.
Annapolis Convention
A gathering of a few representatives to try to rework the Articles of Confederation after Shay's Rebellion. Before even too many people gathered, they realized that they needed to bring together a larger group to completely overhaul the whole structure. Therefore, out of the Annapolis Convention, they called for the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia.
The Constitutional Convention
Meeting in Philadelphia, May 25 - September 17, 1787, of representatives from twelve colonies - excepting Rhode Island - to revise the existing Articles of Confederation; convention soon resolved to produce an entirely new constitution.
Virginia Plan, New Jersey Plan, Connecticut Compromise
Virginia Plan and New Jersey Plans: Differing opinions of delegations to the Constitutional Convention: New Jersey wanted one legislative body with equal representation for each state; Virginia's plan called for a strong central government and a two-house legislature apportioned by population.

Connecticut Compromise: An agreement that large and small states reached during the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that in part defined the legislative structure and representation that each state would have under the United States Constitution.
3/5 Compromise
The population of slaves would be counted as three-fifths in total when apportioning Representatives, as well as Presidential electors and taxes. The Three-Fifths Compromise was proposed by James Wilson and Roger Sherman, who were both delegates for the Constitutional Convention of 1787.
Federalism
A system of government in which power is divided between the central government and the states.
The Federalist Papers
A collection of 85 articles and essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay promoting the ratification of the United States Constitution.
Federalist #10
Madison discusses the means of preventing rule by majority faction and advocates a large, commercial republic, is generally regarded as the most important of the 85 articles from a philosophical perspective.
Factions
People united together with same political interests.
Anti-Federalists
A diverse coalition of people who opposed ratification of the Constitution.
Bill of Rights
First ten amendments in the constitution.

Freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom to assemble, no harsh or unusual punishments, right to bear arm, cannot search without warrant etc.

The purposes of the Bill of Rights are to get the Constitution ratified and to limit the government.
Treaty of Greenville
The Treaty of Greenville was signed on August 3, 1795, at Fort Greenville, now Greenville, Ohio; it followed negotiations after the Native American loss at the Battle of Fallen Timbers a year earlier. It ended the Northwest Indian War in the Ohio Country and limited strategic parcels of land to the north and west.
"Annuity" System
Yearly grants of federal money and supplies of calico cloth to Native American tribes and thus institutionalized continuing government influence in tribal affairs, giving outsiders considerable control over Native American life.
Citizenship
Citizenship in the United States is a status that entails specific rights, duties and benefits. Citizenship is understood as a "right to have rights" since it serves as a foundation for a bundle of subsequent rights, such as the right to live and work in the United States and to receive federal assistance.
Notes on the State of Virginia
A book written by Thomas Jefferson. "Notes" includes some of Jefferson's most memorable statements of belief in such political, legal, and constitutional principles as the separation of church and state, constitutional government, checks and balances, and individual liberty.
Hamilton's Program
Political divisions first surfaced over the financial plan developed by Hamilton in 1790 and 1791. Hamilton's program had five parts. The first step was to establish the new nation's credit-worthiness; second, he called for the creation of a new national debt; third, Bank of the United States, modeled on the Band of England, to serve as the nation's main financial agent. Opposition: "strict constructionists" who insisted that the federal government could exercise only powers specifically listed in the Constitution.
Bank of the United States debate
Thomas Jefferson opposed this plan. He thought states should charter banks that could issue money. Jefferson also believed that the Constitution did not give the national government the power to establish a bank. Hamilton disagreed on this point too.
"strict constructionists"
People who insisted that the federal government could exercise only powers specifically listed in the Constitution.
Impressment
British kidnapping sailors, including American citizens of British origin, to serve in their navy.
Jay's Treaty
Contained no British concessions on impressment or the rights of American shipping. Britain did agree to abandon outposts on the western frontier, which it was supposed to have done in 1783.
Federalists
The Federalists were originally those forces in favor of the ratification of the Constitution (text) and were typified by: A desire to establish a strong central government (unlike that which existed under the Articles of Confederation) A corresponding desire for weaker state governments. They support Washington and favored Hamilton's program.
Republicans
An advocate of a republic, a form of government that is not a monarchy or dictatorship, and is usually associated with the rule of law. They favored democratic self-government and life of economical independence. They were more sympathetic to France than the Federalists and had more faith.
Whiskey Rebellion
Violent protest by western Pennsylvania farmers against the federal excise tax on whiskey, 1794.
Griswold/Lyons Fight
A fight on the floor of Congress between Representative Matthew Lyon of Vermont ad Representative Roger Griswold of Connecticut. Underlying the Lyon-Griswold incident was Griswold's support for the John Adams administration's hardline diplomacy toward France and military preparations in the event of hostilities. Lyon believed that preparations for war would eventually precipitate war. Griswold accused Lyon for spitting tobacco juice at him on January 30, 1798, so they fought.
XYZ Affair
(1798-1800) French foreign minister Tallyrand's three anonymous agents demanded payments to stop French plundering of American ships in 1797; refusal to pay the bribe was followed by two years of undeclared sea war with France.
Alien & Sedition Acts of 1798
Four measures passed during the undeclared war with France that limited the freedoms of speech and press and restricted the liberty of noncitizens.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
(1798-1799) Passed by the Virginia and the Kentucky legislatures; written by James Madison and Thomas Jefferson in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, the resolutions advanced the state-compact theory of the Constitution. Virginia's resolution called on the federal courts to protect free speech. Jefferson's draft for Kentucky stated that a state could nullify federal law, but this was deleted.
"Revolution of 1800"
First time that an American political party surrendered power to the opposition party; Jefferson, a Republican, had defeated incumbent Adams, a Federalist, for president.
Marbury vs. Madison
(1803) First U.S. Supreme Court decision to declare a federal law -- the Judiciary Act of 1801 -- unconstitutional.
Judicial Review
A process under which executive and (in some countries) legislative actions are subject to review by the judiciary. A court with judicial review power may invalidate laws and decisions that are incompatible with a higher authority; an executive decision may be invalidated for being unlawful or repugnant to a statute, and a statute may be invalidated for violating the terms of a written constitution. Judicial Review is one of the checks and balances in the separation of powers.
Louisiana Purchase
President Thomas Jefferson's 1803 purchase from France of the important port of New Orleans and 828800 square miles west of the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains; it more than doubled the territory of the United States at a cost of only $15 million.
Lewis & Clark Expedition
The first American expedition to cross what is now the western portion of the United States. It began near St. Louis, made its way westward, and passed through the continental divide to reach the Pacific coast. The expedition have two goals: find what can be traded for money; scientific and geographic studies.
Barbary Wars
The Barbary Wars were two wars fought at different times over the same reasons between the United States, Sweden and the Barbary states (the de jure possessions of the Ottoman Empire, but de facto independent, Tunis, Algiers, and Tripoli) of North Africa in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

The options are: attack the pirates, limit pirates' actions, buy peace, and avoid the pirates.

The Americans have no idea that there were pirates in North America seaports because Britain and France paid for America before 1783. In 1785, the pirates started to take American an ships and sailors and Yusuf demanded a high price for Jefferson to pay for the ships ($4000 per ship) and sailors ($1400 per sailor). Congress only willing to contribute $200 and Jefferson refused to the offer, so the Barbary states declared war on America.
Embargo Act of 1807
Attempt to exert economic pressure by prohibiting all exports from the United States, instead of waging war in reaction to continued British impressment of American sailors; smugglers easily circumvented the embargo, and it was repealed two years later.
Tecumseh
An Indian chief who had refused to sign the Treaty of Greenville in 1795 and the Indian leader for the War of 1812.
War of 1812
Fought with Britain, 1812-1814, over issues that included impressment of American sailors, interference with shipping, and collusion with Northwest Territory Indians; settled by the Treaty of Ghent in 1814.
Battle of New Orleans
Last battle of the War of 1812, fought on January 8, 1815, weeks after the peace treaty was signed but prior to the news reaching America; General Andrew Jackson led the victorious American troops.
Treaty of Ghent
Signed on December 24, 1814, in the city of Ghent, was the peace treaty that ended the War of 1812 between the United States and Britain.
Hartford Convention
Meeting of New England Federalists on December 15, 1814, to protest the War of 1812; proposed seven constitutional amendments (limiting embargoes and changing requirements for officeholding, declaration of war, and admission of new states), but the war ended before the Congress could respond.