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Social Psych 231 chapter 1 The discipline of social psychology
Terms in this set (56)
Different causes may interact with each other to produce changes in a dependent variable (A and B interact to bring about changes in C).
This occurs when the relationship between two variables depends on a third variable ( A causes C, but is also dependent on levels of B).
This occurs when the relationship between two variables is explained by a third Variable (A causes B and B causes C).
A branch of psychology dedicated to the study of how people think about, influence and relate to each other.
A branch of study that involves the gathering of data to test hypothesis that are derived from theories.
A set of principles that ain to explain a phenomenon.
Critical social psychology
An alternative to mainstream (often termed experimental) social psychology arguing that mainstream social psychology is limited by its focus on 'universals' of human nature, which do not exist.
Late 19th century precursor to social psychology. The study of 'the collective mind'.
Approach based on explaining behaviours in relation to reinforcement.
Force field analysis
Gestalt framework developed by Kurt Lewin to explain human dynamics.
Hindsight bias/ the 'I knew it al along' effect
The tendency for people to see an outcome as inevitable once the actual outcome is known.
Predictions that are tested empirically.
A question that guides the research that is conducted.
a method that involves the formulation of hypotheses, based on theory and research, and the testing of those hypotheses.
Language is viewed as social action, through which people construct their social world.
Approach emphasizing the way social phenomena develop in social contexts.
An intentional departure from previously dominant approaches of enquiry, emphasizing that apparent realities are only social constructs and are therefore subject to change.
Socially shared beliefs or widely shared ideas and values associated with our cultures.
Research methods and their underlying assumptions.
Research approach based on interpretations of data generally obtained by observation, use of archives, or interviews. Data are typically verbal(e.g., spoken or written words), but interpretations of pictures, movement and other behaviours may feature qualitative research.
Research approach based on the systematic measurement of events or phenomena and the statistical analysis of data.
Information, observations, measurements or responses that are collected, scientifically analysed and interpreted.
Aspects of a study that participants may interpret as 'demanding 'a particular response.
Examines the relationships or associations between variables.
Examines the effect of one variable on another variable.
Independent variable (IV)
In and experiment, the IV is the variable that is manipulated and is the hypothesized to cause a specific outcome in the dependent variable.
Dependent variable (DV)
In an experiment, the DV is a variable that is measured and is hypothesized to be influenced by the IV.
External validity/ mundane realism
The similarity between the situation of the experiment and the situation in which the phenomenon/ phenomena of interest occur in everyday life.
Internal validity/ experimental realism
The extent to which a researcher can be confident that the variable of interest produced the results.
In an experiment, the researcher takes an additional measure to ensure that the manipulation of an IV has had the desired effect.
An experiment that is set up in the 'real world'. Participants are typically unaware that they are participating in an experiment.
In an experiment, participants are allocated randomly to groups to avoid any potential effects of participant characteristics (e.g., age, gender) being overrepresented in one group and influencing the results.
When one (or more) IVs are related to another casual variable, so it is impossible to tell which variable is having an effect.
In an experiment, the control group is similar to a condition I which the IV is manipulated, except that the 'ingredient' that is hypothesized to influence the DV is missing.
Procedure in which neither experimenter nor participant have knowledge of the experiment conditions.
Research technique in which researchers observe natural behaviour without intervening. It is often referred to as the field study method.
A type of observation study where the researcher goes into the field to observe naturalistic behaviour.
The process of selecting participants for a study.
Taking a random group of participants from a population (e.g. giving every British adult the chance to participate in a study of British attitudes towards the government).
A problem arising when results in a study become difficult to interpret because participants with certain attitudes or characteristics disproportionately select themselves to participate the research.
Taking a group of participants from an available subgroup (e.g., undergraduate participants).
The extent to which the way a variable is measured is likely to yield consistent results.
The association between a measure and an outcome that the measure is designed to predict.
The measure of the probability that a given finding could have occurred by chance.
Focuses on fundamental questions about people's thoughts, feelings and behaviours.
Applies basic research to problems or social issues.
used in applied social psychology, there are efforts to change people's behaviour.
Cultures where people see themselves as independent entities with independent with characteristics and voluntary social bonds.
Cultures where people see themselves as dependent on others with characteristics that respond to social situations, and important and involuntary social bonds.
Participants need to indicate their willingness to participate in research after being fully informed about what the research involves.
In social psychology, deception is a case where the participants are misled about the purpose of the research or some aspect of the research.
A member of the research team who poses as a real participant and s instructed to interact or respond in a predetermined way.
A committee that evaluates the ethicality of research proposals and judges whether they are appreciate to investigate.
Participants are informed about the purpose, aims and hypotheses of the research.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
A type of neuroimaging scan used by social psychologists to measure the change in blood flow that occurs in the brain during social tasks.
Social cognitive neuroscience
Study of processes in the brain that allows people to understand others and themselves, and to successfully navigate the social world.
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