What are we going to do tonight, Brain?
Terms in this set (50)
Specialized nervous tissue used to convert stimuli into electrochemical signals and conduct these signals through the body. Made up of a cell body, dendrite, and axon.
stimuli / stimulus
Changes, occurring within or outside the body, that bring about a response (neural, in the organs) in a living organism.
This is the part of the neuron that receives messages and send them to the cell body.
Messages carried by nerve cells are called ________.
Nerve cells that receive information and send impulses to the brain or spinal cord.
Nerve cells that relay impulses from sensory nerve cells to motor nerve cells.
Nerve cells that conduct impulses from the brain to muscles and glands throughout your body.
The gap between the axon terminal of one cell and the dendrites of the next cell
When an impulse reaches the end of an axon, the axon releases a ________.
peripheral nervous system
The network of nerves that connects the brain and spinal cord to other parts of the body. Has two primary divisions:
1. Somatic nervous system
2. Autonomic Nervous system
This subsystem of the peripheral nervous system controls voluntary actions.
This subsystem of the peripheral nervous system controls involuntary actions.
An involuntary, autonomic response to a stimulus controlled by the spinal cord.
cell body (soma)
Contains the nucleous and controls the metabolic activity of the neuron
In this picture of neuron structure what is letter "C" pointing to?
Transmits impulses, or action potentials, away from the cell body
Process of the movement of ions in a neuron in response to a given stimulus
autonomic nervous system
Subdivision of the motor division that is involuntary (cardic muscles) important in blood pressure control, gastrointestional motility, excretion. respiration, and reproduction
central nervous system
The main division of the nervous system containing the brain and spinal cord
Processing and interpreting sensory input and deciding if action is needed
The ability to respond to a stimuli
motor (efferent) division
Division of the PNS that carries impulses/information away from the CNS
Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
Disease that breaks down the myelin sheath of axons and eventually leads to death
the nervous system
responsible for controling most body functions, enabling organisms to recieve and respond to stimuli from their external and internal environments
Cells that support and protect the neurons
prevents leakage of signal from the axons and allows for faster conduction of impulses because it acts as an insulating substance in most mammals (produced by oligodendrocytes and schwann cells)
Swellings where the axons end (also called bouttons or knobs)
"chemical messagers" released from synaptic terminals into the synapse
Remove cellular debris and pathogens
The result of depolarization in the neuron. Voltage-gated ion channels located in the nerve cell membrane open in response to this. The level of stimuli needed to prompt the depolarization.
Period of time after an action potential during which new action potentials are very difficult or impossible to initiate immediately (allows time for the neuron to regenerate neurotransmitters
All or none law
Once an action potential is triggered, an impulse of a given magnitude and speed is produced
neurons that carry sensory information about the external or internal environment to the brain or spinal cord
neurons that carry motor commands from the brain or spinal cord to various parts of the body (muscles or glands)
A mass of neurons that resides in the skull that interprets sensory information, forms motor plans, and cognitive function (thinking), coordinates all bodily functions.
relay and integration center for spinal cord and cerebral cortext
controls visceral functions (hunger, thirst, sex drive, water balance, blood pressure, and temperature)
Relay center for visual and auditory impulses as well as motor control
consist of the cerebellum, pons, and the medulla
helps to modulate motor impulses initiated by the cerebral cortex and its important in the maintenance of balance, hand-eye coordination, and the timing of rapid movements
acts as a relay center to allow the cortext to communicate with the cerebellum
controls many vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and gastrointestinal activity
made up of the midbrain, pons, and the medulla
elongated extension from the brain that acts as the cobduit for sensory information to the brain and motor information for the brain (can initiate reflexs by itself)
Division of the autonomic nervous system that energizes and prepares for emergencies; generates the 'fight or flight" response that uses norepinephrine as its neurotransmitter.
Acts to conserve energy and restore the body to resting activity levels after exertion. Uses to vagus nerve and acetylcholine neutransmitter
detects light energy (photons) and transmits information and intensity, color, and shape to the brain
innermost layer of the eye that contains photoreceptors that sense light and transduce it into action potentials (cones and rods)
where the optic nerve exist the eye (photorecepters are not present)
Tranduces sound energy (pressure waves) into impulses percieved by the brain as sound
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