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Psychology 207, Chapter 4 vocab, Assessment and Research Methods
Terms in this set (72)
A systematic gathering and evaluation of information pertainig to an individual with a suspected abnormal behaviour
The degree to which a test yields the same results when it is given more than once by the same person.
Can be evaluated by correlating a persons score on a given text with the same person score on the same test, but taken later
An attribute of a test demonstrated by a high correlation between scores on two versions of a test. To circumvent the problem that one may improve on a test the second time around because of practice, test designers may prepare two forms of the same test.
The degree of reliability within a test.
The extent to which different parts of the same test trials the same results
Measure of internal consistency by comparing responses on odd numbered test items with response on even numbered test items and seeing if the scores for the responses are correlated
Method for evaluating internal consistency, calculated by averaging the intercorrelations of all the items on a given test
Measures whether a test looks like it tests what it is supposed to test
When the content of a test includes a representative sample of behaviours thought to be related to the construct the test is designed to measure
Attribute of a test, when it gives a higher score to people already known to have greater ability in the area it tests.
Done because some qualities are easier to recognize than to define completely
The validity of a test assuming a specific theoretical frame work that relates the item the test measures to some other item that is more easily assessed.
Two sets of measurements correlate
Approach to evaluating and interpreting the data on the patients, making predictions, and coming to decisions that rely on the clinicians experience and personal opinion more than formal rules.
Approach to evaluating and interpreting the data on patients, making predictions, and coming to decisions that rely on statistical, empirical, and formal rules
Computerized axial tomography (CAT/CT)
Brain imaging technique.
Narrow band of x-rays is projected through the head. X-ray source and detector rotate slightly and project images. Exposures are combined by a computer to produce highly detailed cross-section of the brain
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Noninvasive technique for examine the structure and the functioning of the brain.
Magnetic field is produced around the head and pulses of radio waves are produced. When turned off, characteristic frequency are emitted, which can be detected. Info gathered is made in a computer-generated image of the brain
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
Combination of CT and radioisotope imaging.
Radiation is injected, as substance is used in brain activity, radiation is given off and detected, allowing measurements of variety of biological activities in brain.
Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test
Oldest and most commonly used.
Often used to screen kids for neuropsychological impairment.
Consists of 9 cards containing lines and shapes drawn in black and white on cardboard. First copy images and then draw form memory. Errors in reproducing lines and shapes may indicate problems.
Mutual understanding or trust between people.
mental status examination
Semi-structured interview in psychiatric setting. Screens emotional, intellectual, and neurological functioning. Used in formal diagnosis or to plan treatment.
Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
Test of judgement, comprehension, and reasoning invented by Binet.
A reflection of the persons performance compared with others of same age. (Multiplied by 100)
Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale
Intelligence test; ability for verbal reasoning, quantitative, abstract/visual, and short term memory.
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
Most widely used iq test, designed to measure diverse aspects of intelligence
Most recent version of wais
Reveals info the person being tested can't or will not report directly. Used to help form hypothesis about an individuals personality
Rorschach inkblot test
Judgments are based about what is seen in a abstract image which reflects their personality
Way of standardizing the scoring of responses in a Rorschach examination in order to increase reliability and validity.
Works better for schizophrenia
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Test using drawings on cards depicting ambiguous social interactions. Asked to construct stories from the cards. Tales reflect experiences, outlook on life, needs, and conflict.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
Objective test of personality. Assesses many aspects of personality. Contains 567 questions grouped to form 10 content spaces plus additional scales to detect invalidity. Ex. Carelessness, defensiveness
Million clinical multiracial inventory (MCMI)
Test of personality developed to help make diagnostic judgements in dsm
Personality assessment inventory (PAI)
provides information relevant for clinical diagnosis, treatment planning and screening for psychopathology. Broad-based assessment of mental disorders. It is comprised of 344 items and requires 50-60 minutes to administer.
Person by situation interaction
Impact of a persons surroundings on their behavioural characteristics. Predicting behaviour requires knowledge of ones typical behaviour pattern and characteristic of setting
In Vivo observation
"In the living being" Method used by behaviourists to determine how environmental variables effects behaviour. In persons every-day environment, participant observers.
Analogue observational setting
Artificial environment set up in office or lab to elicit specific classes of behaviour in an individual. Used when in vivo observation doesn't work
Change in behaviour often seen when people know they are being observed or filmed. Difficulty in the in vivo observation and analogue setting
4 sets of variables that behavioural and cognitively oriented clinicians are concerned with.
O-organismic; factors that may increase the probability of behaviour
R-responses; problem with behaviour itself
C-consequences; of behaviour, mainly those that may reinforce/punish it
Specification and class of clinical phenomenon; one of primary goals of clinical research
Knowledge obtained by observation and experimentation, brought under general principles
Scientific procedure in which variables are manipulated and effects on others are gauged. Large groups of people are normally used
Procedure that ensures each subject in an experiment has an equal probability of being either the experimental or control group
In experiment, the group exposed to a variable that is manipulated (independent variable)
Variable that is manipulated
The behavioural response on measures the researchers hypothesize would be effected by manipulation of the independent variable
Group that experiences all aspects of the experiment, including assessments, in a manner identical to the experimental group, except for the manipulation of the independent variable
Difference obtained in the dependent variable that occurs as a function of manipulation of the independent variable
An assessment of subjects on many measures prior to manipulation of the independent variable. Done for descriptive purposes.
Assessment of the subjects on several dependent variables judged to be important, in order to get a comprehensive picture of the effects of manipulating the independent variable
Phenomenon that individuals in treatment programs expect to get better and as a result may feel improvement, or repost improvements to please the experimenter
Substance that looks and feels like the substance being tested in an experiment, but does it contain the active ingredient
Procedure to help ensure that expectations of the subject of a study do not influence the outcome. Neither the experimenter or subject know who is getting the substance in question and who is getting placebo
Degree to which the changes in the dependent variable of an experiment are a result of the manipulation of the independent variable. If not alternative explanations are possible, the experiment has a strong form of this.
The generality of the findings in an investigation or the degree to which the findings apply to other individuals in other settings
One in which the subjects in the experimental group are not randomly assigned but selected on the basis of certain characteristics and in which there is no manipulation of an independent variable
What occurs when two or more variables exert their influences at the same time, making it impossible to accurately establish the causal role of either variable
Non-experimental investigative method that measures the degree of relationship between two variables.
Behaviour isn't manipulated, quantitatively measured and then analyzed statistically. Correlation coefficient is computed. Requires a large number of participants
Scientific study in which a large number of people are evaluated its respect to the existence of psychological or behavioural features and are then followed up, often years or decades later, to develop if they have determined a disease
Non-experimental investigative method resulting in a description of the past and current functioning of a single individual, generally the result of information gathered through intense interactions over long periods of time.
Non-experimental investigation method that, like the case study, is based on intense investigation of an individual subject, but avoids criticisms of the case study by using experimentally accepted procedures. Uses observable behaviours that are quantifiable.
Also called reversal design; non-experimental investigative method, variety of single-subject design, requires quantification of behaviour in its naturally occurring environment prior to any intervention. Constitutes the A phase or baseline of the procedure. In B phase , treatment is introduced in a controlled manner. Next A phase constitutes the reversal, final B phase the treatment is provided once again.
Another name for ABAB
The study of incidence and prevalence of disorders in a population
Number of new cases of a disorder in a particular population over a specific time period, usually a year
The frequency of a disorder in a population at a given point or period of time.
In family studies, the patient, or the person who has come to the attention of the clinical/researcher.
Also called the index case
Similarity of diagnosis in a pair of twin--they are concordance if they both exhibit the same trait or disorder
A type of adoption study in which one group comprises adopted children whose biological parents have a disorder and whose adoptive parents demonstrate no psychopathy. Allows for revealing if environment or Genoese play a role.
monozygotic (MZ) twins
Identical twins, which result from the fertilization by a single sperm of a single ovum. 100% that their genes are in common. Mono meaning one.
dizygotic (DZ) twins
Non-identical (fraternal) twins, which result when two independent sperm separately fertilize two independent ova at approx the same time. 50% of genes in common. Di meaning two.
Any observable characteristic or trait of an organism.
A term used to describe the phenotypic effects that are due to interactions between environment and genes
The study of modifications of gene expressions that are caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence
An attribute of research results when it is extremely unlikely that they could have occurred purely by change. The standard by which most research is judged as valuable or worthy of being published.
An attribute of research results, referring to the practical utility of the treatment studied, which does not follow automatically from the results statistical significance.
an investigative approach meant to control for the potential irrelevance of statistical significance in research, in which treatment results are compared to those of non-distributed samples.
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