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Chapter 1 - cct109
Terms in this set (89)
Overcoming natural barriers to facilitate the movement of people, goods, and culture
a repeatable social, cultural and material process
technology that allows cultures to select, store, and process relevant data
What is 'old media' and what is 'new media'? (Examples)
Ex. of old media: books, newspapers, films, magazines
Ex. of new media: the internet, social media, mobile apps
How does new media differ from old media?
-A communications network ('active 2-way communication')
-has content (media)
Why do we have the media we have?
-media are designed to solve a perceived problem (might not actually be a real problem)
-media can present an idea as a perceived and possibly exaggerated threat & vice versa
-media controls the methods of delivery to change perspectives on a topic
The dream of perfect communication media: What are technologies & practice imagined to be?
the 'panacea' (solution) to any number of social, cultural, personal, political, educational, psychological, governmental, and spiritual problems
These days new media is defined as a mixture of what?
1. Computing and IT
2. Communication networks
3. Content and digitized media
4. Convergence (a mixture of 1-3)
What is convergence?
Interlinking of computing and IT, Communication networks and media content (through internet)
Give an example of convergence.
E.g: Media companies that own internet companies or TV shows with complimentary websites all available on mobiles
"Elements of convergence is morphing devices" give an example of morphing devices.
(i.e computers are phones via skype, iphones are used for video games and televisions)
What is digital media?
forms of media content that combine and integrate data, text, sound, and images within digital formats. Distributed through cables, satellites and microwave transmissions.
What is meant by "manipulable" in terms of digital media?
Digital information is easily changeable and adaptable at all stages of creation, storage, delivery and use
What is meant by "networkable" in terms of digital media?
Digital information can be shared b/w numerous users at the same time
What is meant by "dense" in terms of digital media?
very large amounts of data is stored in small physical space.
What is meant by "compressible" in terms of digital media?
the amount of capacity that data takes up on a network can be reduced through (de) compression
What is meant by "impartial" in terms of digital media?
Data carried across networks is indifferent to how it's represented, who owns or created it or how it's used.
What's new for society from the new media ? (3 elements)
-The artifacts or devices that enable and extend our ability to communicate
- The communication activities and practices we engage into develop and use these devices
- The social arrangements and organizations that form around these devices and practices
Internet refers to what?
-computers and devices connected through high-speed networks
-The forms of content, communication, and information sharing that occur through these networks
DIMaggio, Nargittai, Neuman, and Robinson's definition of the internet:
"The electronic network of networks that links people and information through computers and other digital devices allowing person-to-person communication and information retrieval"
When was the web created?
What is packet switching
long messages broken into small packets - Messages could be redirected
-not at the same time
national long distance computer network in the US - Packet switching was a part of this network
TCP/IP what does this stand for?
transmission control protocol/internet protocol; a common switching protocol
first major commercial web browser
Internet explorer was released by who?
released by Microsoft
result of what made the Internet become popular worldwide?
1. National Center for Supercomputer Applications created the first popular web browser, Mosaic
2. Netscape - first major commercial web browser
3. Internet explorer - released by Microsoft along with Windows 95 software
Features of the web?
-Introduced multimedia (pictures, music, text)
-Hypertext - linking of information
-Hypertext was valued more because it gave users easy access to information on the internet
-Associated with the development of hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP)
Provided a platform-independent means of linking between websites
-HTML - hypertext markup language; used to code the web
What were online attractions that were key in the internet gaining a lot of traffic?
Google, Wikipedia, YouTube
Why did some organizations (back in the day) decide to create a catalogue of all the websites?
Numerous websites emerged and people had a hard time keeping up/finding specific sites. They would save or share the links they wanted to return to which was not very efficient. (e.g. yahoo)
Who created google?
Sergey Brin and Larry Page, took everything Yahoo! had but made it so that it could better answer people's search questions.
Putting an encylopedia took too long, so what did Jimmy wales (founder of wikipedia) do?
he used the 'Wiki' technology which opened up submission and review systems
What made posting video content online for amateurs easy?
the advancements of technology such as having HQ video recording capabilities on mobile devices, the once expensive Filmmaking industry became accessible to the mass population -> which further increased the amount of video content shared on the Web.
In an 'oral culture', everything known is...
-collected by human perception
-stored in the brain, often with the aid of mnemonic devices (techniques to improve memory) such as stories, songs poems, myths, etc.
-processed in individual thoughts and collective conversation
Written language breaks verbal communication with written scripts having 2 important variables:
1. development of writing and its ability to represent something else (eg. Pictograph and/or the alphabet)
2. Physical variables relating to utensils used to do the actual writing and a medium in which something is to be written on may determine the style of delivery of information that may not be possible with verbal speech alone
Print Media V.S. Electronic Media
Print ex. driver's license (filled with data), license plate, vin#
Electronic ex. radios, cameras, video cameras, breathalyzer, radar guns
Written language breaks verbal communication with written scripts (example)
Eg. The written script may dictate the time and space in which a message is created, processed and sent to others (rate of messages created, how long messages can last, message transfer speeds and limitations, size of messages, etc.)
-These written scripts allow for the organization of space by regulating communication by giving orders and collecting data
-language can be treated as media technology: the repeatable way of how things are stored, processed, expressed, etc.
-Note that information is only useful if it is organized and locatable
Major effects of printing
1. The rise of Universities and Science
-allows for the collection, scrutiny, and dispersal of knowledge
-creates protocols for experiments and acceptable practices
-provides the means for training and storing data (university & library systems)
The Rise of Mass Media and Large Audiences:
-By 1850, cheap paper and huge printing presses make widespread literacy and daily 'news' common in most highly developed economies
Does technical media utilize everyday language?
will humans no longer be needed to perceive, interpret, transcribe and inscribe data?
yes they will eventually no longer...
What was the first machine able to encode information stored as data and eventually decode to reproduce the same information called?
The Phonograph Gramophone (1877
How can we manipulate human errors? - Napoleon's French Conquest, communication via the Chappe-Code
humans susceptible to error so by employing a systematic way to communicate, much like how machines do
How did war influence the computer and Internet? (2 points)
-war forced the use of this as it essentially becomes a life or death situation, either use mechanized data to keep up or rely on 'flawed' human processing and risk failure
-using these huge computer systems automizes everything, increasing reaction speed, reducing human error and creating an efficient method of communication
What's the problem with electronic media?
electronic media is more susceptible to fraud while print media offers more concrete and/or 'true' data
Explain the shanon-weaver mathematical model (1949)
"The decisive source of competitive advantage" - Richard Florida is the definition for which term?
Seltzer & Bentley identify 4 core characteristics of creativity, which they associate with creative problem-solving
1. The ability to formulate new problems, rather than depending on others to define them;
2. The ability to transfer what one learns across different contexts;
3. The ability to recognize that learning is gradual & involves making mistakes
4; The capacity to focus one's attention in pursuit of a goal
-Two-way communications tool
-Used by intracity transportation businesses: local trucking firms and cab companies
-Deployed by large police and fire departments with military coordinated operations
Who brought technologies to freedom
Andrew Barry: electronic communications technologies was part of liberal governance. They also brought technologies of freedom.
the state using electronic communications technologies for liberal governing strategies: production, implementation and freedom organisation
Foucault's mode of surveillance
conspicuous and situated to warrant surveillance, applied to truckers
What is the truth about surveillance?
The truth is the object is not always under surveillance but creating the fear that they are, they start to focus and end up monitoring their own selves e.g the truckers drive at a reasonable speed because they think that they are still being watched
Smokey's Got Ears and the Citizen Surveyors
-Prisoner's conduct were according to noise made at night (according to Foucault's theory: production of silence)
-Silence prevents observation
-Truckers used a type of communication that only truckers would understand to signal the other truckers about police surveillance so that they would avoid getting into trouble e.g. honking in a certain way
"What is Comfort?" - slake and wise
-Save time, conquer space, create comfort, relieve exertion
-Advantageous in specific situation (coat in winter) --> differs from everyday use of "comfort"
-15th century definition: "free of pain and physical discomfort"
"Perpetual State of Dissatisfaction" - slake and wise
-We are dissatisfied by limits; we can't travel fast enough, can't be rich/beautiful enough, can't go to enough places. This dissatisfaction leads to innovation, creating new technology for convenience.
-We are also allured by the promise of the future; such as the lottery and sci-fi, leading to endlessly reaching for new limits.
"What the Future Holds" - slack and wise
-Why do we strive for technology that might be beneficial/convenient? We do we reach for the impossible?
-Rosalind Williams in the Retooling says that we strive for progress and change, which is essentially the meaning of life; humans desire to continuously evolve and change
In which ways does the Industrial production change labor processes
1. Constantly retooling to anticipate, produce and market new and much needed convenience
2. Organizing internally around the value of convenience with consequences for all labour throughout
3. The continuous assembly line (which increases productions significantly)
-Dictionary definition of progress is "to move forward"
· Movement forward implies moving toward something, such as a goal or endpoint
· Progress shows how far we've come and what we've achieved
Reasons why technology is used as the measurement of progress:
o People often think of technology as things rather than processes
§ Things can be counted and the assumption is: the more things the better
§ So, when more technology is developed, it is seen as progress
o Technologies are thought to reflect eighteenth century European values
§ Scientific objectivity, efficiency, and rationality
§ As long as technology achieves those three things, it is seen as progress
· Humans are taught to accept and adapt to the constant state of progress, even if it means technology is replacing us
Merrit Roe Smith: progress - Selling us something
excuse to install new machines in factories and putting them (mid 19th century people) out of work
a term that equates the development of new technology with progress, is a powerful term with quasi-religious undertones.
-Telegraphy thus separated literary publicness and military secrecy at the same historic moment
-With the move of telegraphy from optics to direct current, not only did the human and therefore unreliable, relay stations disappear
-Remote telegraphic control via landline made possible a systematic railway network
an attempt to transmit several messages over a single telegraph cable at the same time
only a year later Edison's phonograph emerged as a spin-off from an attempt to increase the throughput rate of telegraph cables
theorem of Nyquist and Shannon
the scanning theorem of Nyquist and Shannon, any and every form of signal, provided it is frequency-range-limited intrinsically or through filtering, can be bi-univocally reconstructed from scanned values of at least twice the frequency
Von Neumann's design postulated the following three system elements:
-a central processing unit for command-controlled processing of alphanumeric data by either mathematical or logical rules;
-a write-read memory for variable data and a read-only memory for programmed commands;
-a bus system for sequential transmission of all these data and commands as bi-univocally ( having 2 meanings) indicated through binary addresses by pages and columns.
optimized in terms of the storage, processing and transmission of messages
in addition to messages they also control the traffic of persons and goods and comprise all kinds of media (in McLuhan's analysis).
Every communication system fulfilling the following three criteria is an information system:
"if data make possible the operation of storage"
"addresses that of transmission and commands"
Five Connected Stages Elegant Model:
1."there is an information source which selects one message per unit of time from the either enumerable-discrete or innumerable-continuous quantity of possible messages."
2. "this source supplies one or more transmitters which process the message via suitable coding into a technical signal (something which is quite impossible in the discrete case without intermediate data storage)."
3. "these transmitters feed a channel which safeguards the transmission of the signal in space and/or time from physical noise and/or hostile interference."
4. "these channels lead to one or more receivers which reconstitute the message from the signal by subjecting it to a decoding algorithm inverse to that of the transmitter"
5. "the retranslated message arrives at the address of an information drain."
a theory claiming that technology drives the development of social structure and cultural values
Social shaping of technology
a theory presuming that technologies and societies affect each other (co-creation) part of larger economic cultural circles
3 frameworks in social shaping of technology
1. Diffusion of innovation
2. Political economy: the study of economic infrastructure of social power relations that constitute the production, distribution, and consumption of resources, including communication resources
Knowledge economy - the theorized new economy that replaces older models of labor, capital, resources with info, service and innovation
3. Computer mediated communication: social psychology
Which of the following is not considered a characteristic of digital information? A. Dense B. Impartial C. Cheap D. Manipulatable
Convergence (pt 2)
the process by which media technologies, industries, and services merge - through the changes in computing, communication networks, and content.
The diffusion of innovation model is interested mainly in
A. The adoption and spread of new communication technologies
B. The power relations embedded in technology
C. The invention of new technologies
D. The way web 2.0 was invented
Packet Switching (pt.2)
meant that long messages could be broken down into small "packets"; messages could be rerouted if there was a blockage
allows for the linking of information, where links from one information source provide simple point and click access to related information available from other sources
content that came from home users
the differential access to and use of the internet according to gender, income, race, and location
used to describe and make sense of series of interrelated processes, such as the rise of multinational corporations
- interactive process
is an observation, describing the increasing value of a network according to the number of connections it has - e.g. telegraph (many telegraph companies) bring them all together into one company was a smart business move
cyber space -kitchin
one of the most universally over-hyped terms of the latter part of the 20th century
Diffusion of innovations model
identifies different categories of users
politcal economy approach
focuses more on the politics and power relations embedded in technological development
the company agreeing to carry the goods cannot discriminate between customers who wish to transport similar goods
Social implications of net
Technology determinism vs. Social shaping
- tech determinists say that tech causes social change by impacting social structures and values. But Social shaping says that society creates tech and causes social change itself
decentralized: social media
This set is often in folders with...
CCT 109 - Intro to new media
CCT109- The history of new media
CCT109 Test 1
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