18 terms

C4 and CAM Plants

STUDY
PLAY
-Mild climate
-Alabama plants
-C3 plants
-C3 pathway
-Photorespiration
-RUBISCO is the enzyme
Plants in a low stress environment
-Plants in the tropics
-Tropical grasses (ex: sugarcane)
-More sun, higher temps
-C4 plants
-C3 and C4 pathway
-No photorespiration
-PEP carboxylase and RUBISCO are the enzymes
Plants in a medium stress environment
-Desert plants: cacti
-Even more sun, higher temps, and less precipitation
-CAM plants
-C3 and C4 pathway
-No photorespiration
-PEP carboxylase and RUBISCO are the enzymes
Plants in a high stress environment
-Just as many on top as on bottom of leaf
-Ex: blade of grass stands straight up, so it needs them on both sides, not just one
Stomates in C4 plants
never more than 3 cells away from bundle sheath cell
Describe the mesophyll in C4 plants
-Large
-Only place where glucose is made (during the C3 pathway) in these plants, so they have to be big
-(In C3 plants, all cells/mesophyll can make glucose)
Describe the bundle sheath cells in C4 plants
-Mesophyll
C4 pathway starts in the ____________ cells
-Day
-Day
-Night
When do C3, C4, and CAM plants open their stomates?
-CO2 combines with 3-C PEP, with the help of the PEP carboxylase enzyme, to form a 4-C oxaloacetate
1st step of C4 pathway
-First form of stable organic carbon
-How the C4 pathway gets its name
4-C oxaloacetate
-CO2
-It won't accept O2 even during drought
PEP carboxylase only accepts ____
-The 4-C oxaloacetate becomes a 4-C malate
2nd step of C4 pathway
-The 4-C malate moves to bundle sheath cells from the mesophyll cells
-CO2 comes off of malate and enters the C3 pathway to make glucose
-There is a 3-C leftover, which is PEP, and the process starts over again
3rd step of C4 pathway
-The bundle sheath cells are right around the vein, so the glucose can be dumped directly into the phloem in the form of sucrose
-It doesn't have to travel from the mesophyll cells
What is efficient about the fact that in C4 and CAM plants, glucose is only made in bundle sheath cells?
-Crassulacean Acid Metabolism
What does CAM stand for?
-To take in CO2
-This conserves water, but it delays their growth rates because they can't take in sunlight at the same time
Why do CAM plants open their stomates at night?
-Night
-Day
When do CAM plants undergo C4 and C3 pathways?
-Temporal (time)
The separation of C3 and C4 pathways is ___________ in CAM plants
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