Psych Video Quiz

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How did John Garcia, Carl Gustavson and colleagues use
classical conditioning to protect sheep from coyotes?
Left packages of drugged lamb meat wrapped in sheep's hide for coyotes to eat and then get sick. Sheep then become a conditioned stimulus and associate sheep with sickness
Why is anticipatory nausea in chemotherapy patients an
example of classical conditioning?
US = chemotherapy,
UR = nausea
Other stimuli (needles, rubbing alcohol, road to hospital) come to
be associated with the nausea, so they become conditioned
stimuli that also evoke the CR of nausea
In Frasier's prank on Bulldog, what was the US, UR, CS, CR?
US= Seahawks Loss
UR= Sadness
CS= Red Balloon
CR= Sadness
How does behavioural psychologist Robert Epstein define Operant conditioning?
Strengthening of behavior by the consequences that occur
5. When discussing operant conditioning, what do positive and
negative mean?

What do reinforcer and punisher mean?
Positive: something that is added

Negative: something that is taken away

Reinforcer: something that increases behaviour

Punisher: something that decreases behaviour
How does behavioural psychologist Howard Rachlin define self-control?
Choosing between a smaller immediate reward and a larger
In Rachlin's study of self-control in pigeons: in the first
condition, what was the choice presented to the pigeons?

What did the pigeons choose?
The pigeons choose between a small reward they would receive immediately, or a larger reward they would have to wait a few seconds for. Almost all pigeons chose the small immediate reward.
In the second condition, what was the choice presented to the pigeons?

What did the pigeons choose?
The pigeons had to peck 15 times to receive the same choice of reward: a small reward they would receive
immediately after 15 pecks, or a larger reward they would have to
wait a few seconds for (after 15 pecks). The pigeons began to choose the small larger delayed reward. Rachlin suggests that this is because requiring the 15 pecks give
the pigeon time to "see the rewards as they really are" and to
therefore choose the larger reward
In the segment on Australian aboriginal forest ranger, Phillip Alderson, what analogy is used to describe working
memory?

What are two examples mentioned of working [short-term] memory?
Analogy: working memory is like a "a mental blackboard"

Example 1: Is that the same crocodile he just saw a few minutes
ago

Example 2: Where did he put his notebook?
What is one factor mentioned that determines whether short-term memories are sent to the cortex (to be stored as long-term memories)?
Having a thought in short-term memory over and over again
What is one idea regarding what happens in the brain to lay
down long-term memories?

How many different items are
estimated can be stored in LTM?
Memories are shared across many different neurons; over time
the branching connections between these neurons are strengthened

The result: lasting memories of things like our families and
friends

Estimated: the brain can store one million items in LTM
McGaugh and Cahill found that people remembered
emotional stories better than non-emotional.

What did they
do to see if this result was due to the effect of adrenaline, or
to other factors?
Gave subject beta-blockers, which blocked the effects of adrenaline
With the effects of adrenaline blocked, people still rated the
same stories as emotional, but they did not remember them as
well.

This is evidence that adrenaline is likely an important factor in the
memory-enhancing effect of strong emotion
What part of the brain do "emotional" hormones like
adrenaline act on in strengthening memories? How does this
process work?
Largely on the amygdala.

Adrenaline activates the amygdala, which sends a message to the rest of the brain indicating that "this information is important; don't forget it!"
Why did Daniel Schachter ask Alan Alda to view "false" photos of the scene along with real ones, prior to asking Alda which photos indicated behaviours that Alda viewed in
the original scene?
The first viewing of the "false" photos were meant to implant false
memories of the scene in Alda's mind
According to Alda, is remembering a scene more like replaying a videotape or shaking a kaleidoscope?

What part of the brain is most involved in keeping track of the different kinds of memories involved in remembering a scene?
Kaleidoscope: with every shake (=attempt to recall), the pieces
come together slightly differently

Part of brain involved: hippocampus; acts as index that stores and reassembles memory information from different parts of the brain
When Schachter looked at the brains of people reporting
experimentally-induced false memories of spoken words,
were there any differences in what part of the brain was
active when reporting false memories compared to real
memories?
Yes; with the false memories, the auditory cortex was not active,
indicating their brains contained no recent trace of the sounds of
the words
What mnemonic system does memory expert Frank Felberbaum use to remember random sequences of cards?

What is the principle underlying this system? Any empirical
evidence for this principle?
fixed conversion tables where each number is represented by a
letter: 0=S, 1=T, 2=N, etc (7=K)

- each of the four suits of card also has a number assigned: clubs
are 1; diamonds are 2, hearts are 3, spades are 4

- so a 7 of spades is translated into a word involving the letter K
(7=K) and the letter R (spades are the number 4; 4=R)

- he then chooses a word that uses the two letters (rake i.e.,
RaKe), and then imagines that object in a visual story

- the principle underlying this system is that Felberbaum believes
that our memory systems find it easy to remember visual scenes
compared to abstract symbols like words and numbers

- some evidence involves the finding that we work on spatial
problems, we employ twice the brain area as for verbal tasks
What mnemonic system did U.S. champion Tatiana Cooley
use to remember people's faces and names ?
She doesn't really have a formal system [very unusual among
memory champions!]
What system does Felberbaum teach for remembering
names?
Break the name down into words that sound like it, or are related to it
- e.g., Felberbaum becomes FELL BEER BOMB

-then construct an unusual image with the person (especially their
face) involving the words; in this case, a beer-bomb falling and
exploding on Felberbaum's nose

- the more unusual the image, the better for remembering
How long did it take the class to improve their skill at
remembering people's names and occupations?
People did 100% better after less than a day's
practice
Of the top eight finishers in the American 2000 memory
championships, how many were trained in Felberbaum's
class in the months before? What does this indicate about
the possibility of training memory (and study!) skills.
Seven of the top eight.

- Demonstrates that memory skills are highly trainable in most
people (and also study skills, since those are largely memory
skills applied to a specific domain of problems)
What memory problem does Jeremy Cusp have? Why? Has it destroyed his sense of self?
almost no short term memory, due to damage to an area near his hippocampus.

can remember some of his past, before his injury; his long term memories, stored away from his hippocampus, are intact

• he cannot create new long term memories

• His sense of self is still intact; based largely on his pre-existing long term memories

• [Example of anterograde amnesia: Similar to the case of Henry Molaison]
Where do the memory signals in the brain go after the hippocampus?
To the cortex. Broken down into pieces and distributed throughout the cortex
Why can Jeremy learn certain new skills, when he can't learn any new facts, such as faces, names or places?
he can learn new skills such as playing the piano or driving a car (although he could
not recall when and how they learned them)

• this is because these skills enter memory without going through the hippocampus

• skill memory calls on other parts of the brain, including the cerebellum; is a type of
Implicit (nondeclarative) memory
Why does Janet Werker of UBC and Patricia Kuhl of U Washington have
infants listen to similar sounds from language other than their own? Can
infants discriminate these sounds better than adults?
-they do this to see if young infants can discriminate all the possible human phonemes

-research like Janet Werker's and Patricia Kuhl's has shown us that before about 8 months, infants can distinguish all phonemes from each other

- this is referred to as universal phonetic sensitivity
-however, between the ages of 8 - 12 months, children lose this ability to discriminate between those phonemes that are not used in their language environment

- psycholinguists refer to this as a critical period in language development: a brief
stage when we are preprogrammed for specific learning to take place

-so as we start to specialize in learning one language, we lose the ability to easily
discriminate sounds in other languages
What does Steven Pinker suggest the human brain comes pre equipped with that aids in language comprehension and productions?
Rules of grammar that allow us to string words together, assemble words out of bits
of words to convey new thoughts
How did Erin learn how to make the past tense of verbs?
Simply by listening to the conversations around her
How does Pinker know that kids have naturally generated grammatical rules,rather than simply memorizing things like the past tense and plural forms?
because they are easily able to apply the rules (which they are not necessarily
conscously aware of) to new, nonsense words; they know more than one wug is
"wugs"; you "chan" right now, but yesterday you "channed"
How do children's errors such as "sticked'' instead of "stuck" and "drawed" instead of "drew" illustrate the fact that children abstract grammatical rules naturally from listening to the speech around them?
because in those case the child is overgeneralizing the grammatical rule he or she has abstracted; they are applying the rule even in cases when the rule is not correct (i.e., in cases of irregular grammatical constructions)

- if the child had not abstracted the rule, they would simply not be able to suggest a plausible past tense, or would only be able to express a specific verb in the past tense
if they had heard that word in the past tense before
What aspect of language does Pinker believe is "in the genes"?
not a specific language; that is determined by the language (or languages) you hear as a child

- it is the ability and mental mechanisms to easily acquire language that is inherited
genetically
Did Kanzi's mother Matata (a bonobo chimapanzee) ever learn to use a symbol for apple when she wanted to reference apple (aside from when she wanted an apple to eat)? Did Kanzi?
Kanzi's mother never did. But Kanzi does use the symbol for apple for things like referencing when other
individuals eat apples, and when he is not supposed to eat an apple
What criterion for qualifiying as "having language" does Duane Rumbaugh suggest that Kanzi meets? Sue Savage-Rumbaugh suggests that Kanzi can comprehend about as well as a child of what age?
-Hear a novel sentence (one that he has not heard before) that requests something,
and respond to it logically and adaptively the first time he hears it
- Rumbaugh suggests that this demonstrates that Kanzi can the "comprehend" (or
understand) language
- Sue Savage-Rumbaugh suggests that Kanzi comprehends language at about the
level of a two - year old human child
How did Phineas Gage's personality change after his brain injury? What
is the significance of Gage's case for the study of the relationship between the brain and human behaviour?
After his injury, Gage was hostile, impulsive, unable to control his
emotions and obscene language

• Gage's case was the beginning of the technique of observing changes in behaviour after specific brain injuries to try to determine how the
processes of the mind are organized within the brain
What are the brain imaging techniques described in the video? What do
each of them do?
EEG (electroencephalogram recording): record brain wave with scalp electrodes

• ERP (event related potentials) record brain waves during specific
cognitive events

• CAT scans(computer assisted tomography) shows the brain's structure

• PET scans (positron emission tomography) images the brain in action

• fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) shows the brain at work in
high resolution
What does it mean to say that areas of the brain are localized?
It means that they are important for specific functions
How long are dendrites? How long are axons?
Dendrites: less than a millimetre; Axons can be as long as three feet
What does the synapse include? What do they do with the electrical
signals from within cells?
The space between two neurons, the axon terminal of the neuron that
sends the signal, and the membrane of the cell that receives it.
• The synapse converts the electrical signals from within cells to chemical
signals between cells
How does the action of dopamine in the synapse differ from
acetylcholine?
Like acetylcholine, dopamine generates membrane currents, but it does so more slowly, because it works indirectly (by activating G-proteins and
What aspect of language comprehension does stroke victim Charles Landry have problems with?

Does he have this problem when he speaks?
cannot comprehend grammatical words ( participles, modifiers, articles, etc.); he understands only nouns and verbs

- No, he can speak those word; just cannot comprehend them when they are spoken
How does the brain process and repeat words?
first, sound travels as nerve impulses to Wernicke's area where it is analyzed

- then to Broca's area where sounds are assembled into sequences

- finally to the motor cortex, which sends signals to the speech muscles