14 terms

replication

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origin of replication
a particular sequence in a genome at which replication is initiated
replication fork
A Y-shaped region on a replicating DNA molecule where new strands are growing.
replication bubble
an unwound and open region of a DNA helix where DNA replication occurs
helicase
separate double-stranded DNA into single strands allowing each strand to be copied; unzips dna
gyrase (topoisomorase)
relieves strain while double-stranded DNA is being unwound by helicase. This causes negative supercoiling of the DNA
single-stranded binding protein
prevent ssDNA from re-forming a double helix; speeds up replication
primase
functions by synthesizing short RNA sequences that are complementary to a single-stranded piece of DNA; primer for dna polymerase
primer
a short strand of RNA that serves as a starting point for DNA synthesis
deoxynucleoside triphosphate
individual nucleotides with three phosphate groups
5 to 3 direction
direction new DNA is formed. The 5' carbon has a phosphate group attached to it and the 3' carbon a hydroxyl (-OH) group
dna polymerase III
enzyme that builds new DNA strand
dna polymerase I
removes the RNA primer and fills in the nucleotides which are necessary for the formation of the DNA in the direction- 5' to 3'. It also helps in proof reading to see if there is any mistake done while replication and while matching base pairs
okazaki fragments
short, newly synthesized DNA fragments that are formed on the lagging template strand during DNA replication.
ligase
seals repairs in the DNA, it seals recombination fragments, and it connects Okazaki fragments
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