13 terms

DNA Mutation

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Induced mutations
Result from the influence of an unrelated factor or agent, either natural or artificial
Spontaneous mutations
Happen naturally and randomly, arising from replication error and base modifications
Somatic mutations
occur in any cell except germ cells and are not heritable
Germ-like mutations
Occur in gametes and are inherited
Missense mutations
Change a codon resulting in altered amino acid
Nonsense mutation
changes a codon into a stop codon and results in premature termination of translation
Silent mutation
Alters a codon but does not result in a change in the amino acid at that position of the protein
Point mutations
Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva - point mutation in a bone morphogenetic protein type I receptor
Frame shift mutation
Result from insertions or deletions of a base pair. Eg. Muscular dystrophy results from a frame shift mutation in the dystrophy gene on X chromosome.
Eg2. ABO blood system
DNA replication errors
DNA polymerase occasionally insets incorrect nucleotides, generally due to base mispairing
- Lead to point mutations
Slippage
During replication can lead to small insertions or deletions
Transposons
Elements that can move within the genome and insert themselves into various positions within the genome, potentially causing mutations
Induced mutations
Arise from DNA damage caused by chemicals and radiation
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