64 terms

Science Unit D Electrical Principles and Technologies

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Proton
Positively charged particle
Electron
Negatively Charged particle
Neutral Charge
Same amount of positive charges as negative
Positive Charge
More Protons(+) than Electrons(+) in a charge
Negative Charge
More Electrons(-) than Protons(+) in a charge
Neutral
(In Electricity) an object that has equal amounts of positive and negative charges
Static Electricity
A stationary electric charge
Caused by the imbalance of electrons on the surface of a material
Charge Seperation
When a charged object is attracted to a neutral or uncharged object, also know as Charged Polarization
Electrical Discharge
A sudden transfer of electrical charge from one object to another, usually indicated by a spark
Van De Graaff Generator
An electrostatic machine which uses a moving belt to create high voltages on a hollow metal globe
Electrical Current
The steady flow of charged particles
Circuit
A complete path that charged particles need
to flow through
Control the flow of electricity
Load
Device in a circuit that transforms electrical energy into another form of energy (Ex. Lightbulbs, Resistors, Motors)
Ampere
Rate at which an electrical current flows
Conductors
A material that an electrical charge can move through easily
Insulators
Stop or hinder flow of electricity
Electrical Energy
Energy of charged particles
Voltage
A measure of how much electrical energy
a charged particle carries.
Voltmeter
Instrument for measuring potential difference in volts
Short Circuit
Unintended path for electricity
Electrocution
A fatal electrical shock
Fuse
Thin piece of metal that breaks an electrical circuit when excess current flow occurs
Circuit Breaker
Special wire that heats up and turns off a switch when excess current flows through an electrical circuit
Electrochemical Cells
Produces electricity from chemical reactions
Primary Cells
Cell that produces electricity by means of a chemical reaction that cannot be reversed
Dry Cell
Has an electrolyte in the form of a paste
Electrolyte
A liquid or paste that conducts electricity because it contains ions
Electrode
Conductor through which electric current enters/leaves a device or material
Wet Cell
Primary Cell having a liquid electrolyte
Secondary Cell
Rechargeable Cells
Rechargeable Cells
Cell that produces electricity by means of
a chemical reaction that can be reversed
by using an external source to run
electricity back through the cell
Battery
Set of cells connected together
Electrochemistry
Study of chemical reactions involving electricity
Electrolysis
Decomposition of a substance by an electrical current
Electroplating
Use of electricity to coat a thin layer of metal onto an object
Semi Conductor
A material with conductivity than an insulator but less than a good conductor
Superconductor
Perfect conductor with no resistance to electron flow
Resistor
Device having resistance to the passage of electrical current, is often used to control the current in a circuit
Resistance
How difficult it is for
electrons to flow through a substance
Ohms
Unit used to measure resistance
Variable Resistor
Resistor whose resistance can be changed
Rheostat
Continuously variable resistor used to regulate electric current
Ohms Law
states that as long as
temperature stays the same:
the resistance of a conductor stays
constant, and the current is directly proportional to the voltage applied.
Circuit Drawings
Drawings of electrical circuits
4 Basic Parts to a circuit
Source: provides energy
Conductor: provides a path for the current
Switching: controls current flow turning it
on and off or directing it into different parts
of the circuit
Load: converts electrical energy into some
other form of energy
Cell
Stores electricity
Series Circuit
Circuit in which there is only one pathway for the current
Parallel Circuit
Have a separate path for each section of the circuit
House Wiring
Uses Parallel circuits
Microcircuit
Tiny Circuits
Energy
The ability to do work
Mechanical Energy
The energy possessed by an object because of its motion or potential to move, Also known as Kinetic Energy
Thermal Energy
The total kinetic energy of a substance.
Thermocouple
A device that can convert thermal energy into electrical energy
Direct Current
The electrical energy moves in one direction
Alternating Current
The electricity flows back and forth about 60 times per second
Transformers
Used to change the amount of voltage with hardly any energy loss
Step Down Transformer
Lots of voltage comes in Less leaves
Step Up Transformer
Less voltage coming into the transformer more leaving
Power
Rate at which a device converts energy, measured by watts
Joules
Used to measure energy
Renewable
Can be replenished naturally
Non Renewable
Can not be replaced as it is used up
Geothermal Energy
Heat and steam from the earth is used to
create electricity