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Physics 20 Final Review
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Gravity
Terms in this set (49)
Scientific Notation
instead of writing all the zero's the term is shortened, and written with a 10^x
Significant Digits
any number 1-9 and any zero's between numbers, or trailing zero's
Multiplying Scientific Notation
multiply/divide coefficients, then add or subtract exponents. The base is always 10.
Adding Scientific Notation
express the numbers to the same power, this often includes moving the decimal place.
Scalar Quantity
magnitude without direction
*Ex. speed, distance
Vector Quantity
includes magnitude and direction
*Ex. velocity, displacement, force, acceleration
Position-Time Graph
the y-axis is displacement and the x-axis is time.
*the slope of a position-time graph is velocity.
Velocity-Time Graph
the y-axis is velocity and the x-axis is time.
*the area under a velocity-time graph is displacement.
Kinematic Equations
a = ∆v/∆t
∆d = v•∆t + 1/2•a•∆t²
∆d = 1/2(v+v)•∆t
∆d = v•∆t - 1/2•a•t²
v² = v² + 2•a•∆d
Uniform Motion
constant movement/velocity (motion or rest)
Acceleration Due to Gravity
Constant acceleration of an object falling near earths surface. (9.81m/s²)
Velocity
rate of change in position; using magnitude and direction
Displacement
a line between final and initial position; using magnitude and direction
Acceleration
vector quantity representing the change in velocity.
Pythagorean Theorem
using the formula a² + b² = c² to find a missing side length of a right angle triangle.
SOH CAH TOA
The trig ratio...
Sin = opposite / hypotenuse
Cos = adjacent/hypotenuse
Tan = opposite/adjacent
Trajectory
the parabolic path of a projectile
Horizontal Motion
an example of uniform motion
Vertical Motion
uniform accelerated motion
X-axis Direction
*there is no acceleration in this direction so a = 0
*the general equation for the initial x components can be determined using trig
*the range is ∆d
*because the projectile is moving in both the horizontal and vertical directions at the same time, ∆t is common to both.
Y-axis Direction
*If up is positive then acceleration due to gravity is down or negative, (-9.81m/s²)
*the y component of the initial velocity can be determined by using the trig ratio's
*the displacement in the y direction is ∆d
*because the projectile is moving in both the horizontal and vertical directions at the same time, ∆t is common to both.
Net Force
a force that is not cancelled out by another force
*a vector sum of all the forces!
Inertia
the tenancy to remain in a currant state
Newton's First Law of Motion
an object in uniform motion will remain in uniform motion, unless acted on by a net force
*an object at rest remains at rest until acted on by a net force
*If net force = zero then acceleration = 0
Newton's Second Law of Motion
if the net force is not equal to zero then, acceleration is also not equal to zero
*acceleration is proportional to the net force
*acceleration is inversely proportional to the mass
*acceleration is proportional
Newton's Third Law of Motion
the force of AB is equal to the negative BA
*forces occur in action-reaction pairs
*equal magnitude but opposite directions
Fundamental Forces
gravity, electromagnetism, nuclear (strong), nuclear (weak)
Negative Acceleration
does not mean you are going backwards just in a negative direction. Usually slowing down.
Manipulated Variable
the indapendant variable, the one you can change
Controlled Variable
kept the same throughout the whole experiment
Free Body Diagram
Should be drawn for every question involving force.
Absolute Value
always makes the number positive
Mechanical Waves
particles in a medium moving in simple harmonic motion
Longitudinal
particles in motion move parallel to the direction of propagation.
Transverse
particles move perpendicular to the direction of propagation
Frequency
determined by the source
Speed
determined by the medium
Superposition
when waves differ by a whole wave length
Nodes
The part of the wave that remains still due to distraction
Open-Pipe Resonance
goes up by half a lamb-dah
Closed-Pipe Resonace
goes up by a quarter Lamb-Dah
Fundamental Frequency
The first resonance frequency
Doppler Effect
the apparent change in the frequency of a wave, caused by relative motion between the source of the wave and the observer.
Apparent Freqency
if the object is moving towards the observer the apparent increases
Inphase
wave sources when there crests line up
Wave Front
the shape of a wave
Destructive Interferance
crest of one meets the trough of another (differ by half lamb-duh)
Constructive Interferance
crest meets crest (whole Lamb-Duh)
Diffraction
Occurs when an object causes a wave to change direction and bend around it
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