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Terms in this set (33)
The range of a pigment's ability to absorb various wavelengths of light.
The 2-C entry compound into the Kreb's cycle in a cellular respiration; formed after pyruvate oxidizes, forming an NADH, and releases CO2
Containing oxygen; referring to an organism, environment, or cellular process that requires oxygen.
Anaerobic cellular respiration
Respiration carried out without using oxygen to produce ATP (eg) glycolysis, fermentation)
A nucleotide consisting of adenine, ribose, and two phosphate groups; formed by the removal of one phosphate from an ATP molecule which provides energy for the cell
An adenine-containing nucleoside triphosphate that releases free energy when its phosphate bonds are hydrolyzed (broken).
A cluster of several membrane proteins found in the mitochondrial cristae (and bacterial plasma membrane) that function in chemiosmosis with adjacent electron transport chains, using the energy of a hydrogen-ion concentration gradient to make ATP. ATP synthases provide a port through which hydrogen ions diffuse into the matrix of a mitrochondrion.
The light-independent process in which photosynthetic organisms (plants) fix carbon from atmospheric carbon dioxide to produce carbohydrates (glucose).
Accessory pigments, yellow and orange, in the chloroplasts of plants; by absorbing wavelengths of light that chlorophyll cannot, they broaden the spectrum of colors that can drive photosynthesis.
The process in which, mitochondria in the cells of plants, animals, and other multicellular organisms break down carbohydrates and other energy-rich products derived from them, such as fats, to generate molecules of ATP. (aerobic - includes Kreb's + ETC; anaerobic - glycolysis + fermentation (lactate)
The production of ATP using the energy of hydrogen-ion gradients across membranes to phosphorylate ADP; powers most ATP synthesis in cells.
A green pigment located within the chloroplasts of plants; chlorophyll a can participate directly in the light reactions, which convert solar energy to chemical energy.
An organelle found only in plants that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water.
The finger-like foldings of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electron transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.
An iron-containing protein, a component of electron transport chains in mitochondria and chloroplasts.
Substance that accepts or receives electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction, becoming reduced in the process.
Electron transport chain (system)
A sequence of electron-carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.
Abbreviation of flavin adenine dinucleotide, a coenzyme that functions as an electron acceptor in the Krebs cycle.
A catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end-product, such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid.
The splitting of glucose into pyruvate. Glycolysis is the one metabolic pathway that occurs in all living cells, serving as the starting point for fermentation or aerobic respiration.
A chemical cycle involving eight steps that completes the metabolic breakdown of glucose molecules to carbon dioxide; occurs within the mitochondrion; the second major stage in cellular respiration.
The reactions of the first stage of photosynthesis, in which light energy is captured by chlorophyll molecules and converted to chemical energy stored in ATP and NADPH molecules.
The carbon-fixing reactions of the second stage of photosynthesis; energy stored in ATP and NADPH by the light-dependent reactions is used to reduce carbon from carbon dioxide to simple sugars; light is not required for these reactions.
An organelle in eukaryotic cells that serves as the site of cellular respiration.
Abbreviation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, a coenzyme that functions as an electron acceptor in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis.
The loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction.
The conversion of light energy and inorganic carbon (carbon dioxide) to chemical energy that is stored in glucose or starches (organic carbon)
The light-harvesting unit in photosynthesis, located on the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast and consisting of the antenna complex, the reaction-center chlorophyll a, and the primary electron acceptor. There are two types of photosystems, I and II; they absorb light at different wavelengths.
A colored substance that absorbs light over a narrow band of wavelengths (eg - chlorophyll)
An active transport mechanism in cell membranes that consumes ATP to force hydrogen ions out of a cell and, in the process, generates a membrane potential.
Ribulose carboxylase, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step (the addition of CO2 to RuBP, or ribulose bisphosphate) of the Calvin cycle.
The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy to chemical energy.
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