19 terms


Overview of Endocrine
Pituitary gland
1. Tiny structure size of grape
2. Connected to hypothalamus
3. makes ADH
Thyroid gland
1. makes thyroxin that regulates metabolism
2. On either side of larynx, over trachea
Adrenal glands
Located on top of each kidney
1. Ovary in female
2. Testes in male
1. Located posterior to the stomach
2. Endocrine and exocrine functions
Endocrine gland
a. Secrete hormones directly into bloodstream
b. Ductless
Exocrine gland
a. Secrete substance through a duct
b. Sweat, salivary and pancreas
Function of endocrine system
1. To secrete hormones that coordinate and direct target cells and organs
Negative feedback
a. Blood level of hormone falls, drop in hormone level triggers a chain reaction
b. Brains gets message and sends out hormone to stimulate gland
c. Gland secretes more hormone
d. When blood level of hormone increases, brain hormones stop
Thyroid gland
1. Main hormone, thyroxine, is controlled by secretion of TSH
2. Thyroxine controls the rate of metabolism
Adrenal glands
Adrenalin - hormone from adrenal medulla, powerful cardiac
stimulant, "fight or flight" hormone
Gonads (Ovaries and Testes)
1. Estrogen - development of female reproductive organs,
secondary sex characteristics
2. Progesterone - plays a part in the menstrual cycle
3. Testosterone - male reproductive organs and secondary sex characteristics
1. insulin production
2. Insulin promotes utilization of glucose by the cells
Diseases - Gigantism
1. Hyperfunction of pituitary - too much growth hormone
2. In preadolescence - overgrowth of long bones leads to excessive tallness
Diseases - Dwarfism
1. Hypofunction of pituitary in childhood
2. Small size, but body proportions and intellect normal
3. Rx - early diagnosis, injection of growth hormone
Diseases - Hyperthyroidism
1. Overactive thyroid gland
2. Too much thyroxine leads to enlargement of gland
3. Symps - consuming large quantities of food but lose weight
4. Goiter - enlargement of gland
5. Exophthalmos - bulging of eyeballs
6. Rs - partial or total removal of gland, drugs to reduce thyroxine,
Diseases - Hypothyroidism
1. Not enough thyroxine
2. May be due to lack of iodine (simple goiter)
3. Symps - dry, itchy skin; dry and brittle hair, constipation, muscle
cramps at night
fast response that doesnt last long. electric message
slow response with long lasting effects, chemical message