Biological and Evolutionary Theories:

Summarize the two introductory paragraphs of this section.
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-there are many possible explanations for why infants use their mouth to explore things, and by extension, many possible explanations for many human phenomena. Psychologists form testable hypotheses to determine the answer to why is this true? There are biological/evolutionary theories, psychological theories and systems theory.
Epigenetics: Some of the traits we inherit cannot be explained by our genes/genome. Epigenetics is a recent theory that suggests heritability can be operating above the genetic level.-Chemical layer upon the genome that controls the expression and silencing of genes. Influences gene function, not gene structure.epigenome:the total inherited changes to the genome without altering the DNA sequencegene expression:when the gene's DNA sequence activated and is converted into gene products of the cell (e.g proteins)gene silencing:when the DNA sequence is deactivated and stopped from being converted into gene productsSummarize the research findings from the field of Epigenetics presented in the third and fourth paragraphs of this section on "Epigenetics".-Epigenetic factors can impact development across the lifespan, but are able to be reversed experimentally.Read the Research Report on p. 69 in Chapter 3 entitled Twins in Genetic and Epigenetic Research. a)What is the logic behind comparing identical and fraternal twins to assess the heritability of traits? b) The report states, "If intelligence and attitudes were determined solely by heredity, identical twins would be exactly alike, and researchers would find correlations of +1.00" (fourth paragraph). However, because the correlations found are less than +1.00, environmental factors must also contribute to intelligence and attitudes. Summarize the key findings from the fifth and six paragraphs of this research report.a)If identical twins are more similar than fraternal twins, heredity plays a part. b) -Monozygotic twins had indistinguishable epigenetic patterns and physical traits -Middle-aged monozygotic twins showed sizeable differences in their epibenthic patters and phenotypic characteristics -Twins who lived dissimilar lifestyles and spent less time together had even greater epigenetic differences. -Environmental variables(differences in diet, smoking, fitness levels) bring about changes in epigenetic market, which changes phenotypic expression.Evolutionary Theories-Evolutionary theories attempt to explain our differences as individuals, and our commonalities as a species. Genetic and environmental causes of development across the lifespan and intergenerationally. -All humans have certain behaviours because these help survival - stranger anxietyEthology: Describe this theoretical view and identify the examples provided.-universal behaviour that exists due to having a survival function. EG. separation anxiety, or E.G Irritated by baby crying --> go to help --> emotional bondBehaviour Genetics: Describe this theoretical view and identify the examples provided.-Behaviour is explained by genetics. EG. Intelligence, shyness -genes determine behaviourSociobiology-Biological explanations for social behaviours. An approach that emphasizes genes that aid group survival, as humans have a better chance for survival when they live in groups. EG. All cultures have rules against murder - humans must cooperate to survive as a group, and killing each other is counter productive.Disease Control: Summarize all the text in this section.Advances in multifactoral genetic diseases will become more accessible as more of the human genome is identified. Epigenetic factors may be the missing link to explain interactions between genetics and the environment. Over 95% of diseases are NOT monogenetic.The Humanistic Alternative: Summarize the key points presented in the introductory paragraph about the general nature of Humanistic Theories.-Humanistic theories share Rousseau's theory of inmate goodness. The most important internal drive is each individuals motivation.Motives: Summarize (a) the key points that pertain to Maslow's theory presented in this sub-section entitled "Motives" (b) in Figure 4 (on p. 41).-There are two categories of motives; deficiency and being motives. A motive is an internal factor that tends to initiate, direct, or sustain behaviour. Deficiency motives involve drives to maintain physical or emotional homeostasis (physiological, safety, love, esteem). Being motives involve the desire to understand, to give to others, to grow (self-actualization). - Maslow's pyramid of needs. -Maslows theory- needs must be met from the bottom up. Interested in the development of motives.Learning Theories: Summarize the two introductory paragraphs right under the heading "Learning Theories".-Development results from an accumulation of experiences. Aligned with Locke(blank state), need to mold children into people. Behaviourism- views development in terms of behaviour changes caused by environmental influences.Summarize the text under the "Early Conditioning" sub-section.Early conditioning occurs during the development of emotional responses. Associating a parent with warm, comfortable and cuddled allow the parent to serve as a conditioned stimulus and comfort the child.Define holisma holistic approach to considering biological development to understand well-being.According to a systems approach, what contributes to growth and holistic health (wellness)?-the reorganization of a system as it adjusts to change/when adjustment is adaptive.Bronfenbrenner's Bioecological Systems Theory outlines SIX contexts that influence wellness in individuals. Identify the 6chronosystem, macrosystem, microsystem, exosystem, mesosystem, and individual contextmacrosystemthe sociocultural context: (customs, laws, government, values)Chronosystem:temporal changes over the lifespan (e.g historical events)individual context:person (biophysical makeup, developmental stage)microsystem:the immediate context of persons, objects and symbols (daycare staff, parents, teachers, family members, close friends)mesosystem:interconnected microsystemsexosystem:the socioeconomic context (mass media, neighbours, workplace, education systems, social services)The American Academy of Pediatricians (AAP) supports an ecobiodevelopmental (EBD) framework. (a) What does this mean? (b) What are the implications of this?-the EBD framework talks about early invention, such as prenatal and early childhood development periods. Health promotion at the very start is the key idea. -this talks about reducing toxic stress such as nutritional deficiencies and maltreatment.toxic stress response:occurs when children endure persistently elevated physiological arousal due to strong, recurring adversity experienced early in their lifeIdentify the (i) main idea, (ii) strengths, and (iii) weaknesses of the following theories as presented in Table 4 on pp. 55-57SEE TABLE -Don't need to know psychoanalytic, Freud, Erikson, Rogers (humanistic)