PSYCH 2NF3 - Midterm 2
Terms in this set (71)
What are the benefits of meditation based stress reduction (MBSR)? Hint - there's 3
1. Improve immune function
2. Accelerate rates of healing
3. Promote overall sense of wellbeing
What is the mechanism of MBSR?
Acceptance of one's situation could alleviate the internal battle that may emerge when expectations of how life should be do not match how life is
What does mindfulness entail?
Sensing what is: your judgments, feelings, and thoughts, as they come and go, without an effort to "get rid" of them
Non-Reactivity to Inner Experience
Perceiving feelings and emotions without reacting to them
Staying alert to sensations within the body
Rushing through activities without being attentive to them
Non-Judging of Experience
Not judging whether thoughts are good or bad
What is the function of the calcarine sulcus?
Separates upper and lower visual fields, where raw data arrives
What is the function of the lingual gyrus?
Handles the density of information processed (V2 and VP)
What is the function of the thalamus?
Relay spot for distributing raw data (V1)
What is the function of the fusiform gyrus?
Processes complex information (V4)
What is the function of V1?
Receives visual input from the LGN and sends it to other extrastriate cortex areas for higher order processing
What do V1 and V2 stains mean?
Thick stains: motion perception
Thin stains: colour information
What is the purpose of V4?
Colour vision, detection of movement, depth, and position
Function of primary visual cortex (V1)?
Input from LGN, output to all other levels
Function of secondary visual cortex (V2)?
Output to all other levels, assists V1
Output to parietal lobe
Dorsal stream: WHERE - visual guidance of movements
Output to inferior temporal lobe
Ventral stream: WHAT - object perception
Output to superior temporal sulcus (STS)
STS Stream: visuospatial functions
What occurs when there are lesions to V1?
Individuals will say they can't see anything, but will still be able to catch a ball if you threw it at them
How much of the cortex is made up of vision related areas?
Vision for action (hint - 4)
- Parietal visual areas in the dorsal stream
- Top down
Action for vision (hint - 3)
- Visual scanning
- Eye movement and selective attention
- Bringing attention to a small details in the environment
- Temporal lobes
- Object recognition
- Parietal and temporal
- Spatial location
- Parietal lobes guide movement and temporal lobes in object recognition
- Looking in the environment
Blindness in an entire visual field
Blindness in the top and bottom outer quadrants
Right nasal hemianopia
Blindness the left half of the right visual field
Blindness in both left parts of the visual field
Blindness in a quarter of the visual field
Blindness in less than half of both left parts of the visual field
What is cortical blindness?
Blindsight in which the individual reports no conscious awareness of seeing but can report movement and location of objects
What is apperceptive agnosia?
Unable to recognize, copy, or match shapes
What is simultagnosia?
Unable to perceive more than one object at a time
What is associative agnosia?
Can perceive objects, but not identify them
What is alexia?
- Inability to read
- Form of object agnosia - inability to construct perceptual wholes from parts
- Form of associative agnosia - word memory is damaged or inaccessible
What is visuospatial agnosia?
- Topographic disorientation: inability to find way
- Other visual deficits accompany this condition (i.e. facial recognition)
V1 and V2
Take in raw data
Where something is in the environment and action based
Form determines if the object is big, small, short, long, etc
Based on identification
Orientation based - ex. is it angled?
What is the function of the inferior parietal lobe?
Connects to the temporal cortex, processes information and classifies it
What is the function of the superior temporal gyrus?
Determines if something is animate or not. Also where Wernicke's area is located
What is the function of the inferior parietal lobe?
- Deals with language perception, but more so in the context of where the information is coming from
- Deals with where things are in the environment in connection with spatial information
What are the functional zones of the parietal lobes?
- Anterior zone - somatosensory cortex
- Posterior zone - posterior parietal cortex
What are aspects of somatosensation?
Intensity, timing, location, temperature, pressure, pain
What does cortical space signify?
The sensation related to the number of neurons in that area. The larger the cortical space, the more neurons that are present in that area
Somatosensory strip connections
Output to area PE (tactile recognition) and motor regions (sensory information about limb position and movement)
Area PE connections
- Inputs from the somatosensory strip
- Outputs to primary motor cortex, supplementary motor cortex, premotor regions, and area PF
Area PF connections
Input from somatosensory, primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, and small visual input through area PG
Area PG connections
Receives complex connections including visual, somesthetic, proprioceptive, auditory, vestibular, oculomotor, and cingulate connections
Hierarchical sensory pathway
- Incoming auditory and visual information
- Stimulus recognition
Dorsal auditory pathway
- Auditory cortex
- Detection of spatial location/movement
- From auditory and visual areas to the polymodal cortex (STS)
- Stimulus categorization
Medial temporal projection
- From auditory and visual areas to the medial temporal lobe, limbic cortex, hippocampal formation, and amygdala
- Preforant pathway
Frontal lobe projection
- Auditory and visual cortex to the frontal lobe
- Movement control
- Plays important role in memory and navigation
- People with hippocampal damage may lose the ability to form and retain new memories
What is biological motion in the STS?
- Movements relevant to a species
- Allows us to guess others' intentions
- Social cognition or "theory of mind"
Magnitude of a sensation as judged by a given person
Distinctive characteristic of a sound
Position of a sound in a musical scale as judged by the listener
"Tone of voice" or pitch in speech
Symptoms of temporal lobe lesions
- Auditory disturbance
- Disorders of music perception
- Impaired organization and categorization
- Inability to use contextual information
- Memory problems
- Altered personality and affective behaviour
- Altered sexual behaviour
Impairments with temporal lobe damage
Object recognition, complex pattern recognition
Impairments with right temporal lobe lesions?
Abnormal face perception and biological motion recognition
Conscious recall of information
Left temporal lobe
Right temporal lobe
Impaired recall of nonverbal material
Temporal lobe personality
- Personality that overemphasizes trivial and petty details of life
- Pedantic speech
- Preoccupation with religion