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RLS 232 #2 Midterm
Terms in this set (88)
"an investigated, educated,
well-thought-out plan used to determine
organization marketing objectives and the most
effective path for leisure service organizations to
achieve their overall organization objectives"
Key step in marketing planning; it establishes and maintains a connection from an org. to a consumer. A marketing strategy role is to determine two issues for an org.: 1. Who should the organization target as consumers? and 2. What is the best way to achieve this?
Market strategy development has what three things?
1. Situation assessment
2. Identifying target markets
3. Set marketing objectives for each target market
Allows an organization to determine formally what is occurring inside and outside an organization at any given point in time. Three-Cs: the company, the
consumers, and the competition
A formal approach of documenting and understanding various components of an organization; it will provide insight into historical, current, and future directions.
What 9 areas are evaluated in a organization assessment?
3. Product, service, program, and facility inventory/offerings
4. Organizational issues and structure
5. Various stakeholders
6. Strategic objectives/master plans
7. Financial status and financial goals
8. Historical marketing efforts
9. Image as viewed by those both inside and outside of the organization
Suggests "truthfulness", and refers to the match between a construct, or the way a researcher conceptualizes the idea on a conceptual definition, and a measure.
Most basic validity; it's a judgement of colleagues (scientific community) that the indicators (e.g., the survey question or scale) really measures the construct; it seems to measure what its supposed to measure
Special type of face validity; Is the full content of a definition represented in the measure? Is the breadth or scope of the concept covered/addressed fully by the scale or survey question?
This type of validity uses some standard or criterion to indicate a construct accurately; the validity of an indicator is verified by comparing to another measure of the same construct in which a researcher has confidence
What are the two types of Criterion validity?
Concurrent and Predictive validity
To have concurrent validity, an indicator must be associated with a pre-existing indicator that is judged to be valid.
When an indicator (e.g., a scale) predicts future events that are logically related to a construct. Not applicable for all measures.
Used for measures with multiple indicators; it addresses the question, "if the measure is valid, do the various indicators operate in a consistent manner?"It requires a definition with clearly specified conceptual boundaries.
When multiple measures of the same construct hang together or operate in similar ways.
(also called divergent validity) Is the opposite of convergent validity. It means that the indicators of one construct hang together or converge, but also diverge or are negatively associated with the opposing construct.
Dependability, or consistency; the numerical results produced by an indicator do not vary because of characteristics of the measurement process or measurement instrument itself. Stability over time; same results over sub populations; same result across different indicators.
Examines the degree to which a measure delivers the same answer when applied in different times to the same group. It is when you administer the same measure or indicator at different times to the same group.
Examines equivalence reliability on long questionnaires; involves dividing the indicators of the same construct into two groups, usually by random process, and determining whether both halves give the same result.
Tests/questions delivered consistently by one individual
More than on coder (content analysis) or survey administrator. It is test by having several coders or interviewers measure the same thing, then comparing the results.
Systematic random sampling
Generate random list for population, then systematically choose every nth name from the list
All the inhabitants of a particular geographic area; all the objects in a given space
A small part or quantity intended to show what the whole is like
Method where every person in the population has the same chance as every other person to be selected for sample
A research divide the population into sub-populations (strata) on the basis of supplementary data; then the researcher randomly selects individual from the sub-population. This ensures representation within the sample of specific groups within the sample.
A research creates clusters of individuals in the population and performs random samples, then the random sampling of small clusters within each selected big cluster, finally the research sampling individuals within the small cluster after.
when a list of potential participants does not exist (esp. within a particular cluster that you want to survey), area sampling uses a geographic/spatial frame or set of boundaries to determine who to send he survey instrument to.
When a researcher selects anyone he or she happens to encounter (often used in tourism because transient population are hard to contact)
Occurs during analysis of qualitative data. It is sampling that is guided by theoretical understanding of a "population's" characteristics. As the process of data collection progresses, the theoretical indicators may be amended by the researcher to included or exclude different segments of a population. It is often associated with grounded theory strategies. As the researcher builds theory during their first rounds of data collection, they will revise their sample (sites, people, or documents) to extend, verify and flesh out her theory. In short, it is purposeful selection of a sample according to the developing categories and emerging theory.
Is an a priori sampling approach where individuals are chosen from population based on predetermined criteria (not randomized). These criteria can be based on theoretical-empirical reasons, or best practice research protocols.
Use when a researcher is studying an inter-connected group of people. Each person is connect directly or indirectly to each other. This doe not mean that each person directly knows, interacts with, or is influenced by every other person in the network. The sampling is started by the researcher's interaction with one or two individuals from a particular network they want to study. After the interview the researchers request the contact info for additional individuals in the network. This system of referral continues until the researcher feels they have enough data.
A systematic, objective process for generating information that will be used in decision making. It is he identification or creation of all possible data or information available to an organization, the assessment of this data, and the summary or interpretation of the data to be used for effective decision making.
What are the three characteristics of Market research?
It must be descriptive, diagnostic, and predictive
Using data from consumers and other public to develop a strategic marketing plan
Begins with a focus on the organization's own capabilities and strengths. With this approach a business will take account of its resources and look at providing them more efficient.
What is the value behind market research?
1. Improve marketing effectiveness
2.To understand needs, wants, and interest of many "public's"
3. To satisfy "public's" better
4. To increase confidence in decision making
5. To provide evidence to support initiates
What are the three phases of marketing decision making that market research is used?
1. Prior (focus groups, secondary data, surveys, historical data)
2. During (tele-surverys, observations, focus groups, surveys)
3. After (secondary data, survey, critical incident technique, story telling)
What are the 5 concerns/considerations of marketing research?.
What are the 3 forms of marketing research?
What are 6 ethical issues behind marketing research?
1. Voluntary contribution and informed consent
2. Level of deception, if necessary
3. Confidentiality of data
4. Anonymity of respondents
5. Standards for sharing of data, destruction of data, and reporting of data
6. Research focused on relationships ensures any contact is of high-quality (professional), personalized, protected (confidential), cognizant of consumers limited time, and thankful for their response
What are the 5 steps in the research process?
1. Problem identification (research objectives)
2. Research design
3. Data collection
4. Analysis of data
5. Interpretation of results
1. Provides insights to a number of respondents' views
2. Data not representative of whole population
3. Largely word-based, image-based data
4. Provides understanding of meanings; good at exploring and discovering unknown info
5. Method provide "openness"" to data collection and analysis
6. Excellent at documenting insider perspective
7. Is flexible
What are the 4 criteria for reflecting on the quality of a qualitative data report?
1. Where the investigators are coming from
2. What they did
3. How they arrived at their findings
4. What the study means
What are the 8 types of methods for qualitative research?
1. In-depth interviews
2. Observational research
3. Perceptual mapping
4. Focus groups
5. Mystery shopping
6. Critical incident technique
7. Unobtrusive measures
8. Content analysis
Quantitative questions must be what?
1. Mutually exclusive
2. Collectively exhaustive
3. Singular in query
4. Scales must provide enough but not too much range
What are the 4 question types for quantitative research?
1. Likert-type sales
2. Semantic Differentials
3. Forced choice or paired comparisons
4. Open-ended questions
What are the 13 potential bias and error in research?
1. Sampling error
2. Sampling bias
3. Measurement error
4. Non-response error
5. Memory error
8. Dissimulation error
9. Problem error
10. Surrogate information error
11. Population specification error
12. Selection error
13. Analysis errors
Mathematical techniques that give enough broad information to provide a general overview or description of the sample's characteristic
Mathematical techniques that allow us to make generalizable statements about a population's characteristics
What are the 5 common gaps org. should be concerned with measuring in comment cards?
1. Consumer expectations and perceptions
2. The organization's idea of consumer expectations and actual consumer expectations
3. The organization's idea of consumer expectations and the creation of service standards
4. Deliver of the service and the service standard
5. Service delivery and the commitment or promise made to consumers
What are the 5 categories for service factors in ServQual?
What are the common criticisms for ServQual?
1. Concerns with the ServQual dimensions- whether they are complete, accurate, and consistent across industries
2. Concerns with using two instruments- one for each of the two construct, to operationalize a third distinct construct
3. Concerns with the statistical properties of difference scores
What are the main differences between IPA and ServQual? (5 points)
1. The way in which the information is obtained
2.Results on the IPA are visually plotted to make the data easy to understand
3. SerQual is based on the size of the gap between expectations and performance
4. IPA identifies which attributes are considered overkill, those that are low importance and high performance by an organization, and low priority, those that are of little importance and the organization is not performing well
5. The IPA benchmarks for acceptable service quality standards can change
The process of tracking conversations around specific topics, keywords, hashtags, or brands, to discover opportunities or to create content
Social Media Monitoring
Responding to the feedback in real time and detecting unhappy customers
Social Media Listening
How negative or positive sentiment impacts your brand image by looking at the aggregate data
What are the advantages of social listening?
1. Tracking overall brand health
2. Looking for content trends
3. Ideas for marketing campaigns
4. Improving customer experience
5. Driving strategic product decisions
User Generated Content (UGC)
Any form of content generated by internet uses that allow consumer to interact with each other
What are the 3 types of UGC?
2. Messages on social networks
3. Product reviews on platforms
What are the 3 reasons why tourist use social media platforms?
1. How a product looks like
Social Media tools
Are mainly used by tourist to inform friends and social peers about their holiday experience
Are used to specifically judge the quality of concrete tourism products or services
Why is UGC important for service providers?
1. Learn what customers say about their products
2. UGC as solid and unbiased customer feedback
3. Help organizations to improve their customer relationship management
Destination Management Information System (DMIS)
Dramatically increase in customer reviews; impossible to manually analyze customer reviews; automatic methods for extracting customer reviews; using statistical and machine learning methods
Big Data Analytics
Data sets that are so large in size that traditional data processing methods cannot capture, manage, and process the within a reasonable period of time
What are the advantages to using Big Data Analytics in tourism?
2. New information flows
3. Real-time data and nowcasting
What 6 things can be derived from online reviews?
1. Linguistic features
2. Semantic features
3. Sentiment features
6. Source (review provider)
Is designed to formally analyze what is occurring in the world that may impact specific leisure service organizations
Is a thorough evaluation of industry specific happenings that may impact a leisure and tourism org.
Why is the information in industry assessment important?
1. Future product, service, program or facility development
2. Potential markets
3. Answers to current of future challenges
4. New suppliers and technological advancement/equipment
Provides a complete understanding of internal and external market segments, including use, satisfaction, interest and behavioral information.
Market Area Demographics
For the geographic area of interest to the organization. This information can assist in identifying the potential markets to be served by an organization.
A successful strategy cannot be developed without this information. Leisure service organization formalize their understanding of competitors in a competitive analysis.
Documents competing organization capbilites, resource, and strategies. This helps to pinpoint the competitor's vulnerabilities and competitive advantages.
Have a similar leisure activity they provide
Are other leisure organizations whose offerings are not identical to those provided by one organization but are those the market considers when determining how to use their discretionary time and money
Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) Analysis
Is to review the organization's current potential as well as to evaluate its future potential. In essence it is designed to formally understand the organization's competitive advantages and develop a strategy for achieving organizational objectives.
The process of breaking the community into meaningful client groups. For marketers, no single community but many subgroups, each with its own priorities, interests and values
To be understood by many people because it is a term conversationally used under the assumption that everyone understands what it means.
Is the identification of groups of people with common characteristics towards which an organization's marketing efforts are geared.
What is client-based segmentation guided by?
5. Perceived needs
What are the main variable categories in conducting market segmentation?
1. Needs and benefits
his is where an organization utilizes more than one category or variable to reflect a consumer's response to leisure offerings
Limitations of market segmentation
1. Hard to segment markets accurately
2. Difficult to identify he most appropriate variables to use to segment the group
3. You could select a target market that turns out not to be viable
4. Its difficult to define the size of a market
5. Expensive process
Is empirically derived based on the results of a research study undertaken for the specific purpose of segment-ing a market. Segments generated from such a study are formed by aggre-gating buyers who respond similarly to a set, or sets, of basis questions.
Is a procedure whereby a company chooses to break out customer groups by a generally accepted classification procedures related to variation in customer purchase or usage of the product category.