Science 10 Chemistry
Terms in this set (62)
the study of matter and how it changes
anything that has mass and takes up space
A pure substance that is composed of two or more atoms combined in a specific way.
The smallest particle of an element that retains the properties of the element. 50 million = 1 cm long.
A change in which one or more substances combine or break apart to form new substances
Particles that make up an atom.
Subatomic particles that have 1+ (positive) electric charge. Held together tightly with neutrons at the centre of the atom in the nucleus.
Subatomic particles that do not have an electric charge. Held together tightly with protons at the centre of the atom in the nucleus.
Subatomic particles that have a 1- (negative) electric charge. Found in region around the nucleus in regular patterns called shells/energy levels.
Tiny centre of the atom containing neutrons and protons
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Each row in the periodic table (side to side).
Each column in the periodic table (up and down).
(Group 1 excluding hydrogen) Very reactive metals (ex: sodium).
Alkaline Earth Metals
(Group 2) Somewhat reactive metals (e.g. Calcium)
(Group 17) Very reactive non-metals (e.g. chlorine)
(Group 18) Very unreactive gaseous non-metals (e.g. neon).
Block of elements from group 3-13. (e.g. iron, nickel, copper, silver, gold).
Positively charged ions.
Elements (metals) that can form ions in more than one way, depending on the reaction they undergo. (ex: iron can lose 2-3 electrons to become Fe2+ or Fe3+. On the periodic table, the most common charge is listed first in the element box.
Diagram that shows how many electrons are in each shell. Named after Niels Bohr.
Arrangement of eight electrons in the outermost shell.
The outermost shell that contains electrons.
The electrons in the valence shell. Involved in chemical bonding.
The bond that forms as a result of the attraction between positively and negatively charged ions.
The formation of a chemical bond between atoms through the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons (usually non-metals).
Formed when non-metallic atoms share electrons to form covalent bonds.
Pair of electrons in the valence shell that is used in bonding.
Illustrates chemical bonding by showing only an atom's valence electrons and chemical symbol. Sometimes called Lewis Structure or electron dot diagrams.
Electrically charged particles that form when atoms gain/lose electrons.
Compounds composed of negative and positive ions.
Formed from the attraction of oppositely charged ions and repelling of similarly charged ions.
Small number written to the right of the symbol of an element. Gives the ratio of each type of ion in the compound. Shown after the element.
Tell you there is more than one type of ion for a certain metal, and the charge on said metal.
Ion composed of more than one type of atom joined by covalent bonds. Because they carry an electric charge, they cannot exist on their own.
Prefix for 1 (in covalent compounds).
Prefix for 2 (in covalent compounds).
Prefix for 3 (in covalent compounds).
Prefix for 4 (in covalent compounds).
Prefix for 5 (in covalent compounds).
Prefix for 6 (in covalent compounds).
Prefix for 7 (in covalent compounds).
Prefix for 8 (in covalent compounds).
Prefix for 9 (in covalent compounds).
Prefix for 10 (in covalent compounds).
On the left side of the reaction sign (→). The starting materials in a reaction.
Located on the right of the reaction sign (→); Substances formed as the results of a chemical reaction
One or more chemical changes that occur at the same time.
Represents a chemical reaction. Written in words or symbols.
A set of chemical symbols and formulas that identify the reactants and products in a chemical equation.
Words that represent a chemical reaction. A type of chemical equation. Ex: nitrogen monoxide + oxygen --> Nitrogen dioxide.
Integers placed in front of the formula/chemical symbol for an element. Can be used to determine the ratios between various compounds in a chemical reaction.
State of Matter
Letters indicate the compound's state: (g) = gas, (l) = liquid, (s) = solid, (aq) = aqueous (dissolved in water).
Dissolved in water.
Symbol for gas.
Symbol for liquid.
Symbol for solid.
Symbol for aqueous.
Law of Conservation of Mass
Mass is conserved in a chemical reaction; the total mass of the products is always equal to the total mass of the reactants in a chemical reaction.
An equation that shows only the formula but not the amounts of the reactants and products
An equation that shows the formula and the amounts of the reactants and products using coefficients
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