Grade 10 Science - Chemistry

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Terms in this set (...)

Ionic Compounds
A compounds composed of oppositely charged ions.
Ion
A charged particle formed from the loss or gain of one or more electrons.
Cation
A positively charged ion.
Anion
A negatively charged ion.
Valence Electron
An electron in the outermost occupied energy level.
Binary Ionic Compounds
A compound composed of a metal cation and a non-metal anion.
Polyatomic Ion
An ion that is composed of more than one atom.
Molecular Compunds
A compound formed when atoms of two or more different elements share electrons.
Molecule
A neutral particle composed of two or more atoms joined together by covalent bonds.
Binary Molecular Compounds
A compounds that is composed of two non-metals joined by one or more covalent bonds.
Reactant
A pure substance that undergoes a chemical change.
Product
A pure substance that is formed in a chemical change; the properties of the product are different from the properties of the reactants.
Chemical Reaction
A process in which new substances with new properties are formed.
Chemical Equation
A representation of what happens to the reactants and products during a chemical change.
Coefficent
A number that is placed in front of a chemical formula in a balanced chemical equation.
Precipitate
An insoluble solid formed in a chemical reaction.
Synthesis Reaction
A chemical reaction in which two or more reactants combine to produce a new product.
Decomposition Reaction
A chemical reaction in which a compound breaks down (decomposes) into two or more simpler compounds or elements.
Single Displacement Reaction
A chemical reaction in which one element takes the place of another element in a compound.
Double Displacement Reaction
A chemical reaction in which the positive ions of two different compounds exchange places, resulting in the formation of two new compounds - one of which may be a precipitate.
Acid
A compound that produces hydrogen ions, H+(aq), when dissolved in water.
Binary Acid
An acid composed of hydrogen and a non-metal.
Oxyacid
An acid composed of hydrogen, oxygen, and another element.
Base
A compound that forms hydroxide ions, OH-(aq) when dissolved in water.
pH Scale
A numerical scale ranging from 0 to 14 that is sued to classify aqueous solutions as acidic, basic, or neutral.
pH Indicator
A substance that changes color to show the concentrations of hydrogen ions (H+) and hydroxide ions (OH-) in a solution.
Neutralization
The reaction of an acid and a base to produce a salt and water.

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