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DAT Bootcamp: Chapter 9.3: Human Immune System
Terms in this set (45)
an antimicrobial protein in mucous, saliva, tears, and human milk
complement proteins _____ pathogens, marking them for phagocytosis or destruction by the complement system
membrane attack complex
Group of complement proteins that form channels in a microbe's surface, thereby destroying it.
_____ is released by mast cells in order to increase vasodilation
histamine is released by _____ cells in order to increase vasodilation
histamine is released by mast cells in order to increase _____
A circulating leukocyte that produces histamine.
2 types of phagocytes
Macrophages secrete _____, signaling molecules that attract additional white blood cells to the site of injury and activate the cells needed for tissue repair.
all leukocytes originate in the _____
process of white blood cells squeezing through the capillary slits in response to cytokines
following phagocytosis, macrophages act as _____ cells
monocytes are called _____ once in the tissue
macrophages are called _____ while they are still in the blood stream
movement by a cell or organism in reaction to a chemical stimulus
the most abundant type of WBC; phagocytosis of pathogens
dendritic cells pass from the tissue to the _____
dendritic cells sample the environment through _____
upon detection of a pathogen, dendritic cells travel to the lymph nodes, where they act as _____ cells
_____ cells are the " bridge " between the innate and adaptive immune systems, as they sample and then report back their findings, if any.
_____ cells destroy bacteria, parasites, virally infected cells, and tumor cells . Note that virally-infected cells and tumor cells are host cells, meaning they were once recognized as "self."
natural killer cells use _____ and _____ to induce apoptosis of virally-infected cells and tumor cells.
programmed cell death
release heparin to inhibit blood clotting
basophils release _____ to inhibit blood clotting
the leukocytes of the adaptive immune system
_____ and _____ cells are lymphocytes, the leukocytes of the adaptive immune system
a foreign molecule that induces an immune response
major histocompatibility complex
a set of proteins that exists on the membrane of every nucleated cell in the body. It allows the immune system to differentiate between which cells are self (synthesized by the host organism) and which are non-self (foreign).
_____ molecules present proteins that are synthesized endogenously (inside the cell). Thus, the presence of a foreign antigen on this molecule is a red flag to the immune system.
_____ molecules present proteins that are synthesized exogenously (outside the cell). These molecules are only found on professional
macrophages, B cells, dendritic cells
name 3 antigen-presenting cells
T cells originate in the bone marrow and mature in the _____
T cell receptor
antigen receptor on the surface of a T cell
The helper T cell becomes activated when it recognizes an _____ molecule and the foreign antigen that molecule is presenting.
The cytotoxic T cell becomes activated when it
recognizes an _____ molecule and the foreign antigen that molecule is presenting. Chemical signals from helper T cells increase this activation.
Once activated, cytotoxic T cells kill the cell that presented the antigen. They release _____ protein, which causes cell lysis of the target cell.
the function of a B cell is to produce and release _____
the marking of pathogens for destruction by phagocytes
the first type of antibody produced after exposure to antigen; avidly bonds to antigen and promotes response of complement system to antigen
most abundant antibody found in serum and tissues; crosses the placenta to provide fetus with passive immunity; opsonizes bacteria and neutralizes bacterial toxins and viruses
antibody produced in response to allergens; binds mast cells and basophils, inducing them to release histamine
most abundant antibody found in breast milk and other secretions; provides fetus with passive immunity during breastfeeding
Activated B cells undergo proliferation and differentiation to produce _____ cells and ______ cells.
_____ cells are a specific type of B cell that produce and release antibodies
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