53 terms

Science 10 Unit 2 - Chemistry

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Terms in this set (...)

Atoms
The smallest part of something that can be identified
Protons
The particles in the nucleus of an atom that have a positive charge
Neutrons
The particles in the nucleus of an atom that have no charge
Electrons
Particles that move around the nucleus of an atom
Nucleus
The center of an atom made of protons and neutrons
Element
A substance that is made of only one kind of atom.
Atomic Number
The total number of protons and electrons in an atom
Atomic Mass
The total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. This is also used to help identify the total number of neutrons in an atom.
Valence electrons
Electrons on the outermost energy level of an atom
Bohr model
model of an atom that shows all the electrons in circular orbits around the nucleus
Lewis Dot Diagram
A model of an atom in which each dot represents a valence electron

includes the symbol for the element surrounded by dots
Ionic Bond
Formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
covalent bond
a bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
Cation
A positively charged ion
Anion
A negatively charged ion
stable octet
a group of 8 valence electrons, very stable, the goal for ion formation and most bonding
The number of valence electrons an atom of Sulfur has
six
The number of electron shells that an atom of Calcium has
four
Covalent bonds are formed between
two nonmetals
Ionic bonds are formed between
metal and nonmetal
The element Hg is...
Mercury
The element Fe is...
iron
valence shell
outermost electron shell
The bond between Ni and O is...
Ionic
The bond between C and O is...
Covalent
Matter cannot be created or destroyed
Law of Conservation of Matter
Compounds and elements found on the LEFT side of the arrow in equations are...
Reactants
Compounds and elements found on the RIGHT side of the arrow in equations are...
Products
Roman numerals are used with...
Multivalent metals
Prefixes like di, tri, and octa are used to name...
Covalent compounds
The capital of Australia is:
Canberra
What kind of reaction is this? Al + CuO > Al2O3 + Cu
Single Replacement
What kind of reaction is this?
MgO > Mg + O2
Synthesis
What kind of reaction is this?
C2H6 + O2 > CO2 + H2O
Combustion
When the products have more energy than the reactants, the reaction is....
Endothermic
When energy is released in a reaction it is called
Exothermic
In a chemical equation these are on the left side
Reactants
In a chemical equation these are on the right side
Products
The "Delta H" in an Endothermic reaction is...
Positive
The "Delta H" in an Exothermic reaction is....
Negative
In a balanced equation what must be equal on both sides of the equation?
The number of atoms of each element
Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and the Halogens are all...
Diatomic
Water freezing is...
Exothermic
Water boiling is...
Endothermic
If more heat energy goes into the reaction than is released, the reaction is....
Endothermic
If the amount of heat energy leaving a reaction is more than the energy being put into it, the reaction is.....
Exothermic
The reactants had more energy than the products have, means the reaction is....
Exothermic
The products have more energy than the reactants had, means the reaction is....
Endothermic
If the energy (kJ) is on the reactant side of the equation, then the reaction is....
Endothermic
If the energy (kJ) is on the product side of the equation, then the reaction is....
Exothermic
water evaporating from a pond is
Endothermic
endothermic reaction
This diagram is of a......
exothermic reaction
This diagram is of a....

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