Looking at Movies Ch. 4

STUDY
PLAY
Narration
The act of telling the story of the film. Primary source is the camera
Narrator
Who or what that tells the story of a film
First-person narrator
Done by an actual character in the movie
Voice-over narration
Heard concurrently and over a scene but not synchronized to any character who may be talking on screen; can come from many sources
Direct address narration
A form in which an on-screen character looks and speaks directly to the audience
Third-person narrator
Delivered from outside the diegesis by a narrator who is not a character in the movie
Omniscient
Providing the third person view of all aspects of the movies action or characters
Restricted narration
Reveals information to the audience only as a specific character learns of it
Character
An essential element of film narrative; any of the beings who play functional roles within the plot, either acting or being acted on. Can be flat or round; major, minor, or marginal; protagonist or antagonist
Goal
A narratively significant objective pursued by the protagonist
Round characters
A complex character possessing numerous, subtle, repressed, or contradictory traits. Often develop over the course of the story
Flat characters
A relatively uncomplicated character exhibiting few distinct traits; do not change significantly as the story progresses
Protagonist
The primary character whose pursuit of the goal provides the structural foundation of a movie's story
Anti-heroes
In outwardly unsympathetic protagonist pursuing a morally objectionable or otherwise undesirable goal
Obstacles
Events, circumstances, and actions that impede a protagonist pursuit of the goal. Often originate from an antagonist and are central to a narrative conflict
Normal world
In a narrative screenplay, the state of the character and setting before the inciting incident
Catalyst
Also known as the inciting incident. The event or situation during the exposition stage of the narrative that sets the rest of the narrative in motion
Antagonist
The character, creature, or force that obstructs or resists the protagonist's pursuit of his or her goal
Stakes
In a conventional narrative, that which is at risk due to the protagonist's pursuit of the goal
Rising action
The development of the action of the narrative toward a climax
Crisis
A critical turning point in the story when the protagonist must engage a seemingly insurmountable obstacle
Climax
The highest point of conflict in a conventional narrative; the protagonists ultimate attempt to attain the goal
Resolution
The concluding narrative events that followed the climax and celebrate, or otherwise reflect upon, story outcomes
Story
All events we see or hear on the screen, as well as all the events that are implicit or inferred to have happened but are not explicitly presented
Plot
The specific actions and events that filmmaker select, and the order in which they arrange those events and actions to effectively convey on-screen the movie's narrative to the viewer
Diegesis
The total compilation of a story - events, characters, objects, settings, and sounds - that form the world in which the story occurs
Diegetic elements
Event, character, object, setting, and sound that help form the world in which the story occurs
Nondiegetic elements
Something that we see and hear on the screen that comes from outside the world of the story, such as background music, titles and credits, and voiceover narration
Backstory
A fictional history behind the cinematic narrative that is presented on screen; elements can be hinted at in a movie (presented through narration or not revealed at all)
Duration
Quantity of time
Story duration
The time that the entire narrative arc is implied to have taken
Plot duration
The time that the events explicitly showed on-screen are implied to have taken
Screen duration
The actual time elapsed while presenting the movies plot or the movie's running time
Summary relationship
A time relationship in which screen duration is shorter than plot duration
Real time
The actual time during which something takes place; screen duration and plot duration are exactly the same
Stretch relationship
A time relationship in which screen duration is longer than plot duration
Cinematic time
The passage of time within a movie, as conveyed and manipulated by editing
Surprise
A taking unawares that is potentially shocking
Suspense
The anxiety brought on by partial uncertainty - the end is certain, but the means are not
Repetition
The number of times that a story element recurves in a plot; signals that a particular event has noteworthy meaning or significance
Familiar image
Any image that a director periodically repeats in a movie to help stabilize the narrative
Setting
The time and space in which a story takes place
Scope
The overall range of a story
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...