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IB Geography Glaciers
Terms in this set (63)
granular snow or compacted ice crystals that are being transformed into solid glacial ice by periodic melting and freezing and the pressure of overlying snow layers.
A solid impermeable mass of ice formed from firn, or granular snow, by the pressure of overlying firn and snow layers and by melting and refreezing.
The lowest or advancing from of a glacier
The imperceptible flow of a solid, such as ice, without any cracking a rupturing, slippage and rotation of individual crystals put under contact pressure or stress.
The process that occurs the ice crystals within a glacier slip over, past, and beside one another along miniature faults within the ice Mass
The sliding of a glacier over bedrock, by the lubricating effect of water, melted by the heat of friction, along the surface between the glacier and its bed
A scratch or groove cut into the surfaces of bedrock by boulders and pebbles frozen into the ice along the bottom of a glacier
A process by which sections of Rock, frozen to the bottom of a glacier, are pulled out of place and carried away as the ice advances
The wearing away of bedrock caused by the rubbing, scouring or scraping action of rock fragments or particles carried by streams, ice,wind or waves.
Continental glaciers (ice sheets)
A single ice sheet that covers all. or a large portion of a continent.
Alpine or Mountain Glaciers
A glacier that forms in an upland or mountain area, occupying valleys and basins; usually much smaller than continental glaciers
Rock Basin Lakes
A lake occupying a basin gouged out of less resistant bedrock by glacial erosion.
Rock Knob Topography
A land surface consisting or rounded rock hills and rock basin lakes formed by glacial erosion.
A level to rolling area where glacial erosion has stripped most of the soil and rock fragments to expose the underlying bedrock
Ice-deposited material made up of unsorted jumble of clay, sand, silt, gravel and boulders
A rock carried from its area of origin and deposited at a distant location by a glacier.
A deposit of glacial till transported and deposited by a glacier.
Kettle Lake (Kettles)
A lake formed when a block of ice trapped beneath glacial deposits, melts and leaves behind a small depression
A rolling line of hills deposited at the furthest extent of glacial till and composed of glacial till.
A rolling line of hills deposited along the sides of a glacier and composed of glacial till.
A rolling line of hills, composed of glacial till, deposited where two different lobes of ice meet
A rolling line of hills, composed of glacial till,deposited where a retreating ice sheet stalled or had a slight re-advance
An undulating surface of glacial till laid down beneath the glacier
A streamlined tear-shaped hill with a wide, round front end, and a longer, tapering tail formed when a glacier re-advances over a previously existing moraine.
A level to rolling plain formed by the deposition of sands and gravels by glacial streams as they enter a glacial lake
A level to rolling plain formed by the deposition of clay in the calm water of a glacial lake
a gently sloping plain composed of sand, gravel, and silt laid down by streams flowing out from the front the front of a melting ice sheet.
pitted outwash plain
a gently sloping plain composed of sand, gravel, and silt that is dotted with kettle lakes and depression formed by the melting of ice blocks buried under the out-wash sediments
a wide shallow valley eroded by a stream carrying water from a melting glacier
A long snake-like ridge of sorted sands, gravel and boulders left behind by a melt water stream that flowed on, inside, or beneath a glacier.
a small conical hill composed of sorted sands and gravels deposited where a glacial melt water stream entered a pond or lake forming a delta.
a large area where the accumulation of snow has sufficient depth to form glacial ice
A bowl-shaped depression cut into a mountain by a glacier as it advances from a an ice field or snowfield
A lake occupying the bottom of a cirque eroded by a glacier that has been completely melted
a knife-edged ridge formed between the steep walls of two or more adjacent glacial cirques
A pyramid-like peak formed by glacial action in three or more cirques surrounding a mountain summit. Built by arêtes
a wide deep valley with a U shaped cross-section formed by glacial erosion in a mountainous region
A glacially eroded U shaped valley flooded by the sea when the glacier has melted.
A U-shaped valley cut by a smaller tributary glacier that lies at a higher elevation than the deeper U-shaped valley eroded by the main glacier.
A ridge of glacial till dropped where two glaciers flow together to form a single river of ice
A lake formed when when a glacier blocks the down slope movement of glacial melt waters
Ground that has been frozen for more than 2 year, found in high latitude regions
The slow downhill movement of water-saturated rock and soil materials.
A narrow calcite tube or cone deposited by water seeping downward from the roof of an underground cave or cavern in limestone rock
A wide pedestal of calcium carbonate, or calcite deposited by water falling to the floor of an underground cave or cavern in limestone rock
Areas beneath the earths surface in which fresh water is stored in layers of porous and permeable rock
An interconnected series of underground cavities or caves formed by the dissolving of limestone rocks, and often occupied by an underground river system
The dissolving of soluble minerals by water in streams or waves
The dropping of rock materials that occurs when a drop in energy slows a transporting agent, such as running water or waves
a small usually shallow, circular to oval-shaped, closed depression formed by the dissolution of limestone below the surface
the expansion, cracking and peeling of rock layers off a newly exposed rock surface resulting from the release of pressure due to the erosion of overlying bedrock.
a large basin or valley formed in limestone regions by the collapse of an underground cavern system
The dissolving and removal of soluble materials from rocks by flowing water or waves
is windblown silt from glacial outwash plains
Truncated spurs are rounded areas of land which have been cut off. They are often rounded at the top but steep at the bottom. They are formed when glaciers move through the main valley and cut off spurs.
A fjord coastline consists of U shaped, formerly glaciated valleys, leading down to the coastline that have become flooded due to sea level rise since the end of the last ice age. They are generally quite broad and deep and act as natural harbors.
A "long, narrow lake in a glacial trough" (U shaped valley) Block by terminal moraine
An alluvial fan is a fan- or cone-shaped deposit of sediment crossed and built up by streams. If a fan is built up by debris flows it is properly called a debris cone or colluvial fan.
is an erosive process of breaking and removing the rocks from the surface of the earth. It is the wearing away of the terrestrial land by weathering, erosion, moving water, ice waves.
Karst is a topography formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and gypsum. It is characterized by underground drainage systems with sinkholes and caves.
An accumulation of weathered rock fragments on the side of a mountain or hill
steplike ledges cut into mountains to make land suitable for farming
A graben is a valley with a distinct escarpment on each side caused by the displacement of a block of land downward.
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