25 terms

Psychology

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amygdala
A limbic system structure involved in memory and processes "reflexive" emotion, particularly fear, aggression and anxiety.
arbor vitae
is white matter in the cerebellum (has a branched, tree-like appearance).
basal ganglia
a set of subcortical structures that directs voluntary movements, eye movements, routine behaviors or "habits" (e.g., bruxism).
brain stem
information relayed from the body to the cerebrum and cerebellum (vice versa). Pathway from the brain and the rest of the body.
caudate nucleus
one of the major nuclei that make up the basal ganglia. It has a long extension or tail. An important part of the brain's learning and memory system
central sulcus
separates frontal and parietal lobes. It is a fold in the cerebral cortex.
cerebellum
the "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input, regulating muscles, coordinating movement output and balance.
cingulate gyrus
a strip of limbic cortex lying along the lateral walls of the groove separating the cerebral hemispheres, just above the corpus callosum. Plays a role in expressing emotions via gestures and resolves mental conflict. Also regulates pain by predicting and avoiding negative consequences.
corpus callosum
A thick band of axons that connects the two cerebral hemispheres and acts as a communication link between them.
fornix
a fiber tract and arch-like structure that extends from the hippocampus to the mammillary body. Involved in olfaction.
globus pallidus
component of the basal ganglia that connects to the thalamus which relays information to the motor areas and the prefrontal cortex. Involved in the regulation of voluntary movement.
Hippocampus
A neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage.
Hypothalamus
A neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward.
mammillary body
one of a pair of limbic system structures that are connected to the hippocampus. Memory loss could result from damage.
massa intermedia
is a flattened band of tissue that connects both parts of the thalamus. It is gray matter with no specific function.
medulla oblongata
Part of the brainstem that controls vital life-sustaining functions such as heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, swallowing and digestion.
olfactory bulb
a brain structure located above the nasal cavity beneath the frontal lobes that is involved in olfaction (which is the perception of odors and smells).
optic chiasm
the point (x-shaped) in the brain where the visual field information from each eye "crosses over" to the appropriate side of the brain for processing.
pituitary gland
The endocrine system's most influential gland that is about the size of a pea. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth, releases hormones and controls other endocrine glands.
pons
contains centers for the control of vital processes, including respiration, sleep, arousal and cardiovascular functions. It also is involved in the coordination of eye movements and balance.
putamen
part of the basal ganglia that is involved in motor control and regulating reinforcement learning.
septum
a thin plate of brain tissue, containing nerve cells and fibers, that is stretched like a flat, vertical sheet between the column and body of the fornix and the corpus callosum.
substantia nigra
midbrain structure where dopamine is produced; involved in control of movement and plays an important role in reward.
subthalamic nucleus
is a small "lens-shaped" nucleus in the brain where it is part of the basal ganglia system. Damage may result in hemiballism (a violent flinging of the arm or leg on one side of the body).
Thalamus
the brain's sensory switchboard (relay station), located on top of the brainstem. It directs messages to the sensory receiving areas (the senses) in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and other lower brain centers such as the pons and medulla oblongata.