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Patient Care Unit #6
Terms in this set (39)
What is an emerging disease?
Answer: A new, existing or recurring disease that is increasing in incidence and/or geographic range.
What are 3 factors that influence the emergence of disease?
1. Increasing exposure to vectors in nature
2. Population growth and migration to crowded cities
3. Rapid international travel and/or import/export of goods
4. Contact with new strains of dangerous pathogens
5. Pathogen mutation caused by overuse of antimicrobial agents (ie. antibiotics)
6. Breakdown in public health measures
7. Climate change
A(n) ______________ is a worldwide disease outbreak while a(n) ______________ is a disease outbreak within a population.
Answer: epidemic, pandemic
SARS causes infection of the
a) Digestive system
b) Nervous system
c) Respiratory system
Answer: c) Respiratory system
______________ is caused by a microorganism that mutates readily in order to be transmitted to humans via pigs.
Spread by ingestion of contaminated food and water, ______________ is a normal flora that has mutated strains causing illness.
Answer: E. coli
What are the symptoms of an E. coli infection?
Answer: Nausea, vomiting, headache, mild fever, severe stomach cramps, watery/bloody diarrhea
The WRHA reported the first case of what fungal pathogenic infection? What precautions does this pathogen require?
Answer: Candida auris; contact precautions
What are the symptoms of an H1N1 infection?
Answer: Fever, cough, nasal secretions, fatigue, headache
What are the three methods of transmission of Ebolavirus?
1. Contact with contaminated blood or body fluids
2. Contact with contaminated objects
3. Infected fruit bats and primates
What are the symptoms of an Ebolavirus infection?
Answer: Fatigue, headache, weakness, diarrhea, abdominal pain, vomiting, fever and hemorhage (inside and outside the body)
True or false: A vaccine exists for Ebolavirus.
A vaccine DOES NOT EXIST for Ebolavirus.
How long after exposure to Ebolavirus do symptoms being to present?
Answer: 2-21 days
A healthcare associated infection occurs ____ hours after being admitted to hospital.
What are the three multi-drug resistant pathogens we discussed in this chapter?
Answer: MRSA, VRE and ESBL
Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus
Extended spectrum beta-lactamase
True or false: Nosocomial infections are not preventable.
Nosocomial infections ARE preventable.
What are the 4 factors that encourage nosocomial infections?
1. Hospital Environment
2. Therapeutic Regimen
4. Iatrogenic Infection
Which of the following are sites of infection for MRSA?
1. Respiratory tract
2. Urinary tract
a) 1 & 2
b) 1 & 3
c) 2 & 3
d) 1, 2 & 3
Answer: d) 1, 2 & 3
How is VRE treated?
Answer: Specific antibiotics
ESBL is an ______________ produced by certain bacteria that prevents certain ______________ from working.
Answer: enzyme, antibiotics
The most common nosocomial infection is ______________.
Answer: C. difficile
Fecal bacteria travel through the urethra to the bladder in ______________ ______________ ______________.
Answer: urinary tract infections
The bacteria responsible for a surgical wound infection is ______________.
The use of a vascular access device increases the risk of acquiring a ______________ ______________.
Answer: bloodstream infection
A common nosocomial infection among patients on respirators is ______________ ______________.
Answer: nosocomial pneumonia
What is the difference between HIV and AIDS?
Answer: HIV is the early form of the virus that can persist asymptomatically for years. AIDS occurs when the body can no longer fight the HIV virus.
How is HIV transmitted?
Answer: Through sexual contact, contaminated needles/blood, fluids containing blood, placenta and breast milk.
True or false: There is a cure for HIV.
There is NO cure for HIV. Antiviral drugs do exist to manage the symptoms.
Hepatitis ____ and ____ are transmitted by oral-fecal route.
Answer: A, E
The most contagious form of bloodborne hepatitis is ____. Healthcare providers are most likely to contract this form via ______________ injuries.
Answer: B, needlestick
What are the symptoms of hepatitis infection?
Answer: Jaundice, fatigue, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
A vaccine exists for hepatitis ____ and ____.
Answer: A, B
West Nile virus is transmitted through what disease transmission method?
For a needlestick injury, you should:
a) Wash the area with soap and water immediately
b) Rinse the area with just water immediately
c) Let the wound bleed
d) Cover the wound immediately
Answer: c) Let the wound bleed
Place the following events in order of occurrence after a needlestick injury has occurred.
1. Inform supervisor
2. Go to Occupational Health/ER within 30 minutes
3. Send Risk Assessment form with student or to the area where treatment is occurring
4. Provide wound care as appropriate
5. Obtain consent from patient for blood test/information sharing; Risk Assessment form completed
a) 4 - 1 - 5 - 3 - 2
b) 1 - 4 - 5 - 3 - 2
c) 4 - 5 - 1 - 3 - 2
d) 4 - 1 - 5 - 2 - 3
Answer: a) 4 - 1 - 5 - 3 - 2
What is the disease causing organism for tuberculosis?
Answer: Mycobacterium tuberculosis
The type of pressure a patient infected with tuberculosis should have in their room is
Answer: b) Negative
Which populations is tuberculosis prevalent in?
Answer: Low income, recent immigrants, and immunocompromised
What are the advances symptoms of tuberculosis?
Answer: Wheezing, rales, tracheal deviation, pleuritic chest pain
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