Nervous Systems Pathology
Terms in this set (48)
Disorder of nerve, involving axon and/or myelin
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS)
A polyneuropathy of prabable immune-mediated viral origin, resulting in symmetric motor paralysis and progressive muscular weakness that develops quickly.
Neuropathy-Clinical Signs & Symptoms
Sensory and/or motor loss, associated with LMN symptoms, Diabetic stocking/glove distribution
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS)-Clinical Signs & Symptoms
LMN disease affecting cranial and peripheral nerves, some sensory loss (stocking and glove) and paresthesias. Muscle weakness progresses from lower extremities to upper and from distal to proximal, may produce full tetraplegia with respiratory failure, tachycardia, slow recovery and 3% mortality. Treatment: Can include moderate exercise.
Myopathy-Clinical Signs & Symptoms
Muscle weakness, worse proximally, no sensory or reflex loss
Muscular dystrophy (MD)
Degeneration of muscle fiber
inflammation of the skin and underlying muscle tissue, involving degeneration of collagen, discoloration, and swelling, typically occurring as an autoimmune condition or associated with internal cancer.
Disorder of neuromuscular junction at post-synaptic membrance
Myasthenia Gravis-Clinical Signs & Symptoms
Extreme fatiguability, skeletal muscle wekaness that fluctuate withing minutes, ocular muscles are affect first and half of the patients experience ptosis and diploplia.(Symmetrical weakness, proximal limb, neck, diaphragm, eyelids; normal reflexes and sensation; weakness increases with repetitive use)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS-Lou Gehrig's Disease)
Chronic degenerative disease that affects both upper and lower motor neurons. Anterior horn cell loss and motor cranial nerve nuclei in the lower brainstem. Corticobulbar and corticospinal tracts affected.Degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord, brain stem, and brain
ALS-Lou Gehrig's Disease-Clinical Signs & Symptoms
Progressive weakness, paralysis, loss of swallowing, respiration; Both UMN and LMN symptoms, initial muscle weakness of distal UE, LE or face; later, spasticity and hyperreflexia (sensation spared). Distal to proximal progression.
Ipsilateral weakness, loss of vibration/position with contralateral loss of pain and temperature
SCI: Central Cord
Compression damage. UE worse than LE involvement, preserved sacral function. Affected spinothalamic, corticospinal, and dorsal columns. Greater motor than sensory deficits, but both involved.
SCI: Posterior Cord
Loss of proprioception, 2-point discrimination with intact pain, temperature, touch sensations, and motor function
SCI: Anterior Cord
Loss of pain, temperature, and motor function with intact proprioception and vibratory senses
Loss of blood flow to brain from ischemia (80%) or hemorrhagic causes
Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
Progressive demyelination disease of CNS, causing sclerotic plaques in white matter; onset young adults aged 20-50
Multiple Sclerosis-Clinical Signs & Symptoms
Visual problems, paresthesias, sensory changes, clumsiness, weakness, ataxia, balance cdysfunction, and fatigue.(diplopia, sensory loss, weakness, fatigue, spasticity, nystagmus, intention tremor, dysarthria, incontinence, cognitive, affective changes)
Progressive disorder basal ganglia, loss of dopamine in substantia nigra
Parkinson's Disease-Cardinal signs
bradykinesia, tremor, postural instability, rigidity
Disorder of the CNS and degeneration and atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex and the neurotrasmitters become deficient at producing movement.(Inherited disorder, mid-life onset, cell death caudate/putamen basal ganglia)
Huntington's Chorea-Clinical Signs & Symptoms
Involuntary movements-Chorea, ataxia+personality change/dementia. Grimacing, protrusion of the tongue, decrease in IQ, immobility, and rigidity.
Extremity and/or trunk ataxia, intention tremor, dysmetria and dysrhythmia
Traumatic Brain Injury-Clinical Signs & Symptoms
Coma, cognitive loss, sensory/motor loss, impairment of coordination, speech, behavior, vision, swallowing
A type of chronic inflammatory means 'many muscle inflammation'; myopathy related to dermatomyositis and inclusion body myositis.
Nerve ischemia from microvascular disease, d/t hyperglycemia. Can include radiculopathies, cranial neuropathies.
Diabetic Neuropathy Signs and Symptoms
Typically weakness and sensory disturbances occur distally in symmetrical pattern. Intially: tingling, numbness or pain, especially in feet. Wasting of muscles- stocking glove, sensory distrution impairments, orthostatic hypotension, weakness, urinary impariments, significant pain.
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Peripheral nerve entrapment injury. Normal tissue pressure: 3 to 7 mmhg, CTS is due to pressure > than 30 mmhg.
CTS Signs and Symptoms
Sensory changes and paresthesia along the median nerve distribution, night pain, decreased grip strength, clumsiness, and decreased wrist mobility.
Congenital: Manifest early in life- non progressive.
Hereditary: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant (freidrich's gene mutations abnormal repetition of the DNA sequence)
Spinocerebellar: Autosomal dominant ataxia
Acquired ataxia: nonhereditary neurodegenerative systemic diorder, toxin exposure or idiopathic. Includeds alcoholism
Cerebellar Disorder S&S
Hereditary ataxia: Gait unsteadiness, UE ataxia, dysarthria, paresis, mental funciton decline, slight tremors, impaired reflexes, vibration, and position senses.
Spinocerebellear ataxia: neuropathy, pyramidal signs, ataxia, and restless leg syndrome.
NOn progressive neuromuscular disorder that occurs 1st trimester in utero. Restriction causes fibrosis of muscles and joints.
Cylinder like extremities, minimal definition, significant and mutliple contracture and dislocation of joints and muscle atrophy.
Non progressive in utero brain damage, decreasing the ability to monitor and control nerve and voluntary muscle activity.
Cerebral palsy demonstrate abnormal muscle tone, impaired modulation of movement and presence of abnormal reflexes and impaired mobility. Work on tone, stretching, strenghtening, motor and developmental learning. Surgical reduction of spasticity.
Genetic abnormailty consisting of an extrea 21st chromosome.
Down syndrome S&S
Mental retardation, hypotonia, joint hypermobility, flatened nasal bridge, narrow eyelids with epicanthal folds, small mouth, feeding impairment, flat feet, scoliosis, congenital heart disease, and visual and hearing loss.
Duchennes Muscular Dystrophy
Absence of the gene required to produce the muscle proteins dystrophin and behulin. Fat and connective tissue replace muscle and dealth usually occurs from cardio failure prior to age 25.
Characteristics usually manifest between two and 5 years of age. Progessive weakness, disinterest in running, falling, toe walking, excessive lordosis, and pseudohypertrophy of muscle groups. Eventual inability to ambulate.
Genetic condition, patial deletion of chromosome 15
Physical and behavioral attributes such as small hands, feet, sex organs, hyptonia, almond shaped eyes obesity and a contant desire for food. Coordination impairments and mental retardation.
Genetic predisposiont, environmental, low levels of folic acid, and it's an develomental abnormailty due to insufficient closure of the neural tube by the 28th day of gestation.
Spina Bifida S&S
Motor loss below the level of the defect in the spinal cord, sensory deficits, hydrocephalus, arnold-chiari type ii malformation, osteoporosis, clubfoot, scolisosis, tethere cord syndrome, latex allergy, bowel and bladder dysfunction, and learning disabilities.
Spinal Muscular Atropy
Spinal muscular atrophy is an autosomal recessive genetic inheritance. Mutation of chromosome 5. Occurs at different ages. Type on the child survives maybe less than one year, type 2 and 3 survive into adulthood.
Spinal Muscular Atrophy S&S
Ptogressive muscle weakness and atrophy, diminished or absent deep tendon reflexes, normal intelligence, intact sensations, and ed stage respiratory compromise. Treatment includes positioning,vestibular and visual stimulation and access to play.
Peds: Charcot Marie Tooth
A hereditary disorder of the peroneal and distal leg muscles. Foot drop and stork leg deformity. Treatment should correct equinovarus deformity.
Idiopathic aseptic necrosis of the femoral capital epiphysis. Usualy unilateral affecting mostly boys between 5/10 years of age. Treatmenet includes prolonged bed rest and mobile traction, slings, casting, and hip abduction orthosis.
Below L1 injury. Frequently incomplete due to the large number of nerve foots. Considered a peripheral nerve impariment. Flaccidity, areflexia, and impairment of bowel and bladder function.