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Chapter 11: Cell Communication
Terms in this set (30)
signal transduction pathway
The process by which a signal on a cell's surface is converted into a specific cellular response
A secreted molecule that influences cells near where it is secreted
Chemical messengers used for long-distance (endocrine) signaling
The target cell's detection of a signal molecule coming from outside the cell.
conversion of a signal from the outside of the cell to a form that can bring about a specific cellular response
change in a specific cellular activity brought about by a transduced signal from outside the cell
Signal released from a cell has an effect on neighboring cells.
a type of local signaling specific to neurotransmitters in nerve cells
a local regulator that acts on nearby cells to stimulate cell proliferation and differentiation
Any molecule that bonds specifically to a receptor site of another molecule.
Cytoplasmic or nuclear receptors that can recognize steroid or thyroid hormones that easily pass through the plasma membrane
G protein-coupled receptor
A large family of integral membrane proteins involved in signal transduction. They have 7 membrane-spanning alpha-helices. A signal receptor protein in the plasma membrane that responds to the binding of a signaling molecule by activating a G protein.
A GTP-binding protein that relays signals from a plasma membrane signal receptor, known as a G-protein linked receptor, to other signal-transduction proteins inside the cell. When such a receptor is activated, it in turn activates the G protein, causing it to bind a molecule of GTP in place of GDP. Hydrolysis of the bound GTP to GDP inactivates the G protein.
receptor tyrosine kinase
a receptor protein in the plasma membrane, the cytoplasmic (intracellular) part of which can catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to a tyrosine on another protein. Receptor tyrosine kinases often respond to the binding of a signaling molecule by dimerizing and then phosphorylating a tyrosine on the cytoplasmic portion of the other receptor in the dimer. The phosphorylated tyrosines on the receptors tehn activate other signal transduction proteins within the cell.
An enzyme that phosphorylates something else. Kinases are frequently used in regulatory pathways, phosphorylating other enzymes.
ligand-gated ion channel
An ion channel that is opened or closed based on the binding of a specific ligand to the channel. Once opened, the channel allows the ion to cross the plasma membrane according to its concentration gradient.
A regulatory protein that binds to DNA and affects transcription of specific genes.
Once inside a target cell, steroid and thyroid hormones combine (usually in the nucleus) with specific protein receptors.
An enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to a protein, thus phosphorylating the protein.
An enzyme that removes phosphate groups from (dephosphorylates) proteins, often functioning to reverse the effect of a protein kinase.
A small, nonprotein, water-soluble molecule or ion, such as calcium ion or cyclic AMP, that relays a signal to a cell's interior in response to a signal received by a signal receptor protein.
A second messenger derived from ATP and triggers specific cellular changes in metabolic regulation
abbreviation of cyclic AMP
important second messenger
An enzyme that converts ATP to cyclic AMP in response to a chemical signal.
protein kinase A
A molecule of cAMP activates ___ ___ ___, which can phosphorylate many proteins.
A type of large relay protein to which several other relay proteins are simultaneously attached, increasing the efficiency of signal transduction.
are a large family of hydrolase enzymes that can bind and hydrolyze guanosine triphosphate (GTP)
Programmed cell death
A "killer enzyme" that plays a role in apoptosis, or programmed cell death
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