Jack decides that taking office supplies from work to use for his personal use would be wrong because stealing is just wrong. Which of the following theories is Jack using to make his moral decision?
Jill decides that, even though she could really use the money, it would be wrong to take an investment from someone who is incapable of understanding the risks. The problem is that taking advantage of that person would not show respect for their human dignity. Which of the following theories is Jill using to make her moral decision?
Kant's Categorical Imperative
What is the difference between Ethical egoism and utilitarianism?
In one you consider the happiness of others and in the other theory you do not.
Who believed that by comparing the pain and the pleasure caused by an act, we can decide which action is morally correct?
Who believed that human beings have an inalienable right to life and the pursuit of happiness?
Problem associated with Mill's version of Utilitarianism?
People will likely not agree on which pleasures are more important that others
What isn't part of Kant' s categorical imperative?
You must do what is good for the group
In virtue ethics, how are we to understand Aristotle's statement that "virtues are found in the mean"?
Virtuous behaviour is a balance between extreme character traits
Which of the following are reasons why you may want to adopt Virtue ethics as your normative theory?
It is too difficult to determine what consequences may follow from your moral choice of action
Aristotle believed that we may determine which character traits are best through reason
- Socrates knew what the laws were and still he chose to stay. - Socrates had every opportunity to change the laws if he thought they were unjust. - Breaking the law will undermine the law's authority. - Socrates and his family have benefited from those laws.
Reasons Socrates stayed in jail
Hobbes believes that human beings are primarily self-interested. That is, they care mostly about their own needs and desires. What reason does he give to believe that this is so?
Human beings are machines that follow a natural law that requires them to be self-interested
- People could not plan for the future. - There was a constant state of war. - Even the strong were at risk of being killed. - There was fierce competition for limited resources.
Hobbes State of Nature
Rawls Veil of Ignorance
Consider the principle from the viewpoint of someone who has no affiliation with any culture, gender, or social class
Individuals are better off when they consider the interests of others.
What was the point made by Gauthier in his consideration of the Prisoner's Dilemma?
A professional code of ethics often uses value-laden principles instead of a list of do's and don'ts
- A list of value-laden principles would be shorter. - A list of value-laden principles is more easily understood by the general public. - A list of value-laden principles could cover many different scenarios. - A list of value-laden principles could cover changing technological advancements.
Professional Code of Conduct
- A code of conduct contains requirements that go above what is considered legal. - Having a code of conduct does not ensure that the members are following that code. - A code of conduct will help the client know what they can expect from the professional. - A member may be disciplined or fired if they fail to follow the code of conduct.
Public Safety and Welfare
According to the APEGBC code of ethics, the engineer's most important consideration should be
Why is it considered unethical to have an undisclosed conflict of interest?
The decisions made by professionals should be based on their professional judgement, not on their desire to satisfy their own self-interests
Otherwise, public safety may be put at risk if services are reduced in order to save money
Business decisions are not moral
What is the main idea behind the position of Business Amoralism?
- The right to a living wage. - The right to criticize the company. - The right to organize a union. - The right to have meaningful work.
- It is morally wrong for managers to make decisions against the shareholder's interests. - Decisions made by the company on behalf of the shareholders must still follow the law. - Considerations of what is good for the consumer are not morally relevant. - Privilege is given to the shareholders' interests because they hold property rights over the company.
Invisible Hand Argument
- By trying to maximize profit, we make companies more efficient and create economic and social progress. - The fairest business deals require self-interested participants. - It is morally required for businesses to maximize profit. - The best outcome for society as a whole will occur when each person tries to fulfill their own desires.
When a number of companies compare their bids so that the lowest bid (and one likely to be picked) is submitted at an inflated cost, it is called:
In Environmental ethics, an Anthropocentric Theory
considers our moral obligations only towards other human beings
Animals cannot make moral decisions, so they are not owed moral consideration
We may want to consider the welfare of animals in our ethical decisions. Which of the following are reasons to REJECT this idea?
Tragedy of the Commons
Decisions based on self-interests will not always benefit the whole
Plants and animals have their own purpose and inherent value
What reason does Taylor give to believe that both animals and plants should be considered in our moral theories?
Engineers Environmental Obligations
- To use renewable and non-renewable resources wisely. - To preserve the environment for the use of future generations. - To design projects so that there is minimal harm done to the environment. - To protect the public from environmental waste.
Eliminate poverty for a sustainable future
People living in poverty have a more difficult time making choices that lead to a sustainable world
WCED (1987), World Food security
Government policies are short sighted and put poorer countries at a disadvantage
- Economic development leads to better education and health care in developing nations. - Donating excess food to developing countries has negative effects on the local agribusiness. - Forests around the world are being sacrificed to create additional agricultural land. - A world with poverty and inequity will be prone to ecological disasters.
WCED Armed Conflicts
- In armed conflicts scarce monetary resources are used to support the conflict which leaves very little to support health care and education. - In armed conflicts human resources are unable to work on solving the underlying social problems. - In armed conflicts environmental concerns are given a low priority. - About half of the world's income is spent on military uses. This money could be used for the betterment of humankind.
Advantage of cap and trade system
A cap and trade system allows the government to control the total amount of carbon pollution released by industry.
ethical issues for engineers to consider when using computers
- Privacy - Knowledge of software algorithms - Illegal use of intellectual property - Use of computer software that goes against the copyright
If you create a piece of software and want to restrict other people from using it without your permission, you will want to have it protected using the following type of intellectual property protection:
- The conditions of the contract must be agreed upon by all parties. - The people involved must receive some benefit from the contract. - The contract cannot oblige you to do something that is against the law. - The people who agree to the contract must not be impaired.
Put the other persons interests first
When a person has a fiduciary duty towards another person, the person with the duty must:
torts that apply to the duty of a producer (of goods and services) to a consumer
- Liability - Duty to Warn - Negligence - Fraud
does not care about other people's interests and needs for their own sake
Aristotle - To be virtuous means
to find excellence or perfection in the purpose
judging actions solely on the basis of their beneficial or harmful outcomes
An illegal payment made by one entity to another who has control over disbursing funds
the act of exaggerating or lying about educational or work experience on a resume
The act of reporting unethical or fraudulent conduct that occurs within a firm or organization
Protect inventions: process, machine, composition of matter, or an improvement on one of those
Protects marks used to distinguish goods or services
Protects the shape, configuration and general look of mass produced items
Integrated Circuit Topographies
Protects the design of integrated circuits in electronic equipment
Sets out rights, responsibilities and liabilities of parties, but also allocates risk and obligations between parties
Tort is the breach of a duty of care owed to another party that causes injury or loss to that other party
Negligence is an unintentional tort
an action is morally right if the consequences of that action are more favorable than unfavorable only to the agent performing the action
an action is morally right if the consequences of that action are more favorable than unfavorable to everyone except the agent
an action is morally right if the consequences of that action are more favorable than unfavorable to everyone
Act Utilitarianism (Bentham)
Consider the consequences of each act that we perform
Hedonistic Utilitarianism (Bentham)
What matters when considering the consequences are what causes pleasure and what causes pain
Rule - Utilitarianism (Mill)
A behavioural code or rule is morally right if the consequences of adopting that rule are more favorable than unfavorable to everyone
These are theories that consider our duties (not the consequences of some act or rule).
Categorical Imperative (Kant)
A) Act only according to that maxim whereby you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law without contradiction B) Treat people as an end and never as a means to an end
emphasizes the importance of developing good habits of character rather than following rules.
conflict of interest
occurs when a professional has conflicting value obligations, all of which cannot be met.
The tax is set by assessing the cost or damage associated with each unit of pollution and the costs associated with controlling that pollution
Cap and Trade
a method for managing pollution in which a limit is placed on emissions and businesses or countries can buy and sell emissions allowances
Social Contract Theory
is the view that a person's moral obligations are dependent upon an agreement among the members of the society is which they live.
Two Principles of Justice
•First Principle: Each person is a society should have as much basic liberty as possible, as long as everyone is granted the same liberties. •Second Principle: Social and economic inequalities can be just as long as no one is denied access to greater economic advantage and such inequalities must be to the advantage of everyone.