Physical Therapy

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Terms in this set (...)

physical therapy
treatment of disease/injury by physical agents
types of physical therapy (8)
1. massage

2. exercise

3. hydrotherapy

4. cryotherapy

5. thermotherapy

6. electrotherapy

7. laser

8. ultrasound
why do we do physio (4)
1. pre-surgical tx to help lengthen/strengthen soft tissues

2. pain relief

3. post surgical rehabilitation

4. support muscles/joints
physiological benefits - two main categories
mental stimulation

physical contact
physiological benefits (7)
1. incr blood flow/lymph drainage

2. earlier resolution of inflammation

3. relax muscle spasms

4. relieve pain

5. earlier movement

6. minimize muscle atrophy and tendon/ligament contraction

7. earlier return to normal function
MASSAGE

definition
manipulation of soft tissue w/ hands
MASSAGE

benefits (6)
1. incr blood flow/lymph drainage from tissue

2. breaks down fibrous tissues

3. incr ROM

4. stretches tendons

5. induces relaxation

6. release of endorphins
MASSAGE

indications (5)
1. contracted tendons, muscles, ligaments

2. post trauma

3. peripheral nerve damage

4. chronic edema

5. decr scar tissue
MASSAGE

contraindications (7)
1. recent injuries

2. non stabilized fractures

3. sprains

4. foreign body under skin

5. diseased/friable skin

6. tumors

7. hemorrhage
MASSAGE

technique
apply heat (incr benefits and comfot)

massage muscle groups based on needs

repetition - 5 mins per session

2-3 sessions a day
MASSAGE

types (6)
1. effluerage

2. fingertip

3. petrissage

4. friction

5. acupressure

6. trigger point
MASSAGE

effluerage
strokes/passes w/ flat palms and fingers

incr in pressure

direction of hair growth

good to warm up and end w/

15 stokes/min
MASSAGE

fingertip
circular movement over muscle groups

incr pressure as muscle relaxes
MASSAGE

petrissage
deep massage

picking up/releasing muscle groups

incr pressure as muscles relax
MASSAGE

friction
repetitive short strokes in direction of hair/fur
MASSAGE

acupressure
steady pressure w/ fingers and heel of palm to acupuncture sites

held for several seconds
MASSAGE

trigger point
steady pressure on tight spot until release is felt
EXERCISE

benefits
strengthen/maintain skeletal system

aids in balance, stability, coordination, ad resp function
two types of exercise
passive (ROM)

active
PASSIVE RANGE OF MOTION

technique

which patients
flex/extend each joint - hold for 10 secs - support joint in anatomic position

recumbent patients
PASSIVE RANGE OF MOTION

if contracted hold ___% past contraction point

repetitions

sessions/day
5

5-10 reps per joint

2-3 sessions
STRETCHING

technique

repetitions

sessions/day
stretch and hold for 10-15 secs

each joint once during session

2-3 sessions
ACTIVE EXERCISE

pros

cons
PROS:

always better than passive ROM

restore ability of movement/tolerance of exercise

CONS:

requires some ability to move
ACTIVE EXERCISE

examples
sit to stands

hip sways

cookie bends

curb walking

cavalettis

incline/decline walks
ACTIVE EXERCISE - SIT TO STANDS

technique

repetitions

sessions/day
laternal, sternal, sit, stand, repeat

give treat to sit, make walk, then sit again

8-10 reps per sessions per side

2-3 sessions
ACTIVE EXERCISE - HIP SWAYS

technique

repetitions

sessions/day
standing w/ back end facing you - sway hips gently side to side (shifting weight from one leg to other)

10-15 reps per session

2-3 sessions
ACTIVE EXERCISE - COOKIE BENDS

technique

repetitions

sessions/day
use treat to entice pet to touch nose to their side

8-10 reps per session

2-3 sessions
ACTIVE EXERCISE - CURB WALKING

technique

repetitions

sessions/days
zigzag dog off and on curb when walking

20-50 ft

2-3 sessions
ACTIVE EXERCISE - CAVALETTIS

technique

repetitions

sessions/day
set cavalettis (jumps) at distance/height that requires extension of hip and rotation

5-10 there and back x 4

1-2 sessions
ACTIVE EXERCISE - INCLINE/DECLINE WALK

technique

repetitions

sessions/day
walk up/down hill depending on specific needs (downhill - front limbs, uphill - hind limbs)

1-4 mins per session

2-3 sessions
what can hydrotherapy provide (5)
1. buoyancy (exercise w/out stress) and resistance (workout for muscles)

2. thermotherapy

3. cryotherapy

4. massage (jets)

5. cleansing/debridement (wound care)
guidelines for hydrotherapy (5)
overcome fear of water

safe and clean

never unattended

20 min BID

hot tub (40C)
HYDROTHERAPY

indications
late stage fracture

arthritis

dislocations

muscle spasms

amputations

chronic inflammation
HYDROTHERAPY

contraindications
acute injuries

recent surgery

pyrexia

circulatory issues

cardiac/resp disorders
CRYOTHERAPY

when do you do it
usually initial 48-72 hrs post injury
RICE
rest, ice, compression, elevation
CRYOTHERAPY

pros (4)
reduces pruritis by reducing temp

reduces pain by decr nerve conduction

reduces muscle spasms

causes local vasoconstriction - inhibits edema/bleeding
CRYOTHERAPY

how long are each session
5-15 mins per session

45 mins b/w to let tissue warm up
benefits of using hot and cold treatment (3)
heat prior to exercise to warm muscles, cold are to reduce pain/inflammation

physiotherapy moves better w/ heat before, cold after

icing sx site before sx reduces swelling/pain
THERMOTHERAPY

definition
application of heat to promote healing
THERMOTHERAPY

application

sessions and time of each session
applied after initial inflammatory phase

20 mins 2-3 times/day (remember protective layer!)
THERMOTHERAPY

what happens if it's applied too early
worsen fluid loss and edema
THERMOTHERAPY

pros (4)
promotes circulation

reduces pain

encourages muscle relaxation

changes muscle contractility
THERMOTHERAPY

sources (3)
radiant heat

conductive heat

converted heat
radiant heat
sun

heat lamps
conductive heat
oat bags

heating pads

water bottles

hotdog
converted heat
ultrasound

laser
OVERALL GUIDELINES FOR USING - THERMOTHERAPY

cautions

other therapy it's used w/

sessions
potential for burns - protective layer!

closely observe - if skin hot/red, stop

used w/ massage and exercise

20 mins 2-3x/day
OVERALL GUIDELINES FOR USING - CRYOTHERAPY

cautions

purpose

sessions
>15 mins risk of frostbite, maintain body heat

post sx to control edema/bleeding

5-10 mins w/ 45 mins b/w each to allow warming time
which is less risk of tissue damage, cryo or thermo
cryo
ULTRASOUND

definition
high frequency sound waves penetrate tissue to generate heat in deep tissue
ULTRASOUND

pros (5)
1. incr collage tissue extensions

2. incr pain threshold

3. changes in muscle contraction

4. changes in blood flow

5. changes in nerve conduction speed
ULTRASOUND

non-thermal effects (4)
1. changes in cellular activity

2. decr edema

3. decr pain

4. speeds inflammatory phase of tissue repair
___ is critical
dose
ELECTROTHERAPY

definition

how it works
use of electric currents

stimulators emit energy - stimulate sensory/motor neurons
ELECTROTHERAPY

pros (4)
1. muscle contraction

2. decr pain

3. incr blood/lymph flow

4. stimulate healing
how does electrotherapy stimulate healing (3)
attracts neuts

decr edema

tissue granulation
LASER THERAPY

definition
light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation
LASER THERAPY

purpose
stimulates healing of old wounds not responses to other treatments
LASER THERAPY

what's it used for (4)
1. soft tissue injury (sprains/strains)

2. anti-inflammatory joint conditions (arthritis)

3. acute/chronic pain (fractures)

4. open wound management
how does laser therapy work
laser -> radiant energy -> chemical rxn (w/out incr in tissue temp)
3 pros of laser therapy
1. incr circulation

2. creates optimal healing environment

3. function restored, pain relieved
incr circulation
draws water, oxygen and nutrients to damaged area
optimal healing environment
reduces inflammation, muscle spasms, stiffness, and pain
MAGNETIC THERAPY

definition

what happens
static magnets used for tx of pain

changes in cell permeability

decr in Na pump activity
what does acupuncture stimulate
endorphins

cortisol
combination of ___ intervention and ___ gold standard for patient comfort/recovery
medical, physiotherapy
NSAIDS
hard on liver/kidneys - not best for old

good for inflammation

not very good for spinal/neuro pain
Tramadol
opioid

good for mod-mod severe pain

neurological pain

1-9mg/kg
Gabapentin
neurological cases

hind end weakness/paralysis

interacts w/ Ca channels to decr pain

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