Chapter 8 A/B
Terms in this set (51)
The faculty for recalling past events and past learning.
The persistence of learned information (and behavior) over time.
initially focused on information (not overt behavior).
Much of the terminology associated with memory research and theory includes reference to information processing (mental concepts)
Only recently does memory research include references to memories for learned behaviors (many types of memories).
could recite 12000 books word for word!
38, 811 significant digits of pi... 3.14
the processing of getting information into our brain.
the retention (retaining) of encoded information over time
the process of getting information out of memory storage.
is the inability to retrieve a memory (several reasons).
information processing model
view of memory suggesting that information moves among three memory stores during encoding, storage, and retrieval. Atkinson & Shiffrin,1968): rooted in computer analogy
three-stage model of memory
To be permanently stored, information (sensory experiences) must pass through three stages of memory (memory systems)
1. Sensory Memory
2. Working Memory ("short-term")
fleeting sensory information (iconic, echoic, haptic)
Last few seconds, unlimited capacity
Encoded temporary information in current awareness
Remains only as long as it is in use (e.g. phone number)
Small capacity (few items)
Can be mingled with retrieved long-term memory
Can be further encoded into long-term memory
all of the information we have gathered that is available for use, such as acquired knowledge (facts), understanding, skills, people we know, etc.
stored permanent memory
parallel distributed model
A more recent model which suggests new memories are integrated into a network of existing memories throughout the brain.
Activating any part of the network activates memories of other parts.
Explains retrieval effects
Example: What were you doing at 3:00 last Friday?
Start thinking about anything related to that day, and more details of the day begin to emerge
when you automatically remember something with NO effort
when you have to work to memorize something
"back door" process
we automatically encode info about...
Space/location: We remember where things happen automatically. e.g. , You easily remember meeting an old friend outside of the Education building.
Time: We remember the sequence of the day's events. e.g. , You met the person in the morning right after psychology.
Frequency: We keep track of how many times things happen. e.g. , You saw them 2 more times that day.
conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in working memory, or to encode it into long-term memory.
repetition without meaning
Repetition with meaning - works better
Studied memory experimentally (tired of arm chair discussions)
Used himself as a subject
Used nonsense syllables (baz, fub, vum, tuv)... novel syllables devoid of meaning to study "pure" memory.
Memorized lists of syllables and examined memory processes such as rehearsal, retention, forgetting rates, etc.
Distributed practice produces better encoding than massed practice (cramming).
Better encoding if rehearsal is spaced over time.
Better to study (same material) at intervals (e.g., 3, twenty min study session with breaks in between is better than a single 1 hour session)
Repeated testing improves encoding.
Serial Position Effect
When encoding many items in a list, memory is affected by position in the list.
Memory is best for items that were last in a list (if tested immediately after encoding)
Memory is best for items appearing first
in a list (if there is a delay between encoding and testing)
Repeat sounds in our mind (or aloud)
hold a visual image in our mind.
consider the meaning of the new information.
Best to consider how new information fits into organized structures.
e.g. entomologist, finds new insect can easily encode into category.
Method of organizing many pieces of information into fewer, manageable units for encoding.
e.g., Strings of digits, often chunked
1 7 0 9 8 6 4 3 0 0 0 becomes: 1 - 709- 864- 3000
aids for improving encoding.
method of loci
Based on visual imagery. Mentally imagine an item (to be remembered) in a familiar location (imagine a shoe in the refrigerator).
use by Greek scholars
peg (attach) something to be remembered with a rhyming word from a well known sequence, like counting (one: bun; two: shoe) etc.
duration of sensory memory
Memory trace in sensory memory fades quickly.
momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli. Lasts a few tenths of a second.
momentary memory of auditory stimuli. Lasts for 3 or 4 seconds.
momentary memory for touch stimuli (few seconds).
duration of working memory
Without rehearsal, information in working memory disappears within 20 - 30 seconds.
Classic study: Participants asked to remember 3 consonant groups (e.g. CHJ).
With rehearsal, memory is indefinite.
If rehearsal was prevented with a distracting task (e.g., count aloud and backwards by 3), information was quickly lost.
After 3 seconds, ½ subjects could recall the letters; by 20 seconds very few could...
capacity of working memory
Limited (even with rehearsal).
We can hold 7±2 items in working memory. Capacity varies from person to person.
duration of long term memory
Practically unlimited. If well encoded, may last a life-time.
We may have as many as a 1 million billion bits of information in our long term memory.
There are of course considerable differences in our abilities to encode and retrieve information in long term memory.
Also, there are many forms of long term memories (past personal experiences, knowledge, skills, etc)...
memories for facts about the world.
Examples: Date of Christmas
memories for personal events.
Example: Your high school graduate night
motor skills (riding a bicycle, tying shoe)
classically conditioned memory
implicit memory of conditioned responses to conditioned stimuli ex. eye blink
readiness to response in a certain way. Example: "George had a ball. He jumped on top of a brick _____"
Any stimulus that re-activates the memory trace (from web of associations).
More retrieval cues the better, e.g., recognition tasks such as multiple choice tests are easier than free recall tasks because there are fewer retrieval cues in free recall questions.
encoding specificity principle
Retrieval is better if tested in study environment due to the many retrieval cues.
Like context, internal states of mind or moods at time of learning can serve as retrieval cues.
Information learned in a particular state or mood is better recalled in that same state.
Example: Learn a list of words when drinking, better recall when drinking. Learn when sober, better recall when sober.
Detailed and powerful (episodic) memories of highly emotional events.