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week 4 ch 10/11
Terms in this set (59)
The measures used to hold uniform or constant the conditions in a research study.
A distortion in the interpretation of the results of the data analysis.
The use of facts without distortion by personal feelings or bias.
Understanding of how the problem is
conceptualized helps to guide the design choice.
Avoids distortion by personal bias in the
conceptualization of the problem
The characteristic of all aspects of a study systematically and logically following from the research problem.
The capability of the study to be successfully carried out.
A variable that interferes with the operations of the phenomena being studied. Also called mediating variable.
Having limited variation in attributes or characteristics.
An aspect of control in data collection that ensures that methods and procedures of data collection are the same for all participants; that is, each participant is exposed to the same environmental conditions, timing of data collection, data-collection instruments, and data-collection procedures.
The provision of some experimental treatment, in varying degrees, to some of the participants in the study.
The group in an experimental investigation that receives the experimental intervention or treatment.
The group in an experimental investigation that does not receive the experimental intervention or treatment; the comparison group.
A sampling selection procedure in which each person or element in a population has an equal chance of being assigned to either the experimental group or the control group.
The degree to which the experimental treatment, not an uncontrolled condition, resulted in the observed effects.
to establish the researcher rules out other factors or threats as rival explanations of the relationship between the variables.
The degree to which the findings of a study can be generalized to other populations or environments.
to establish variation in the conditions and the types of participants should lead to the same results.
longitudinal (prospective) study
A nonexperimental research design in which a researcher collects data from the same group at different points in time. Also called prospective study and repeated-measures study.
A nonexperimental research design that begins with the phenomenon of interest (the dependent variable) in the present and examines its relationship to another variable (the independent variable) in the past. Also known as a causal-comparative study, a comparative study, and (by social scientists) an ex post facto study.
A research method in which the results of multiple studies in a specific area
Precise measure of
A form of research in which the researcher takes previously collected and analyzed data from one study and reanalyzes the data for a secondary purpose.
Reanalyze data from
E or non-E study
Used for different
Examination of factors affecting the health and illness of populations in relation to the environment.
research design (QUAN)
Provides plan to aid in
solving problems, answering
hypotheses pertaining to the
independent and dependent
Involves a plan, a structure,
and a strategy
Allows researcher to apply
different levels of control
In experimental / quasiexperimental designs the
researcher actively seeks
to bring about the
desired effect rather than
behaviours and actions
Holding the conditions
of the study constant
threats to internal validity
History- events outside of the experimental setting may affect the dependent variable.
Selection bias - arises when pretreatment differences exist between the experimental group and the control group.
Maturation- developmental, biological, or psychological processes that operate within an individual as a function of time and are external to the events of the investigation.
Testing- effect on the scores of a posttest as the result of having taken a pretest.
Mortality- loss of a subject from time 1 data collection to time 2 data collection.
Instrumentation- changes in the measurement of the variables that may account for changes in the obtained measurement.
threats to external validity
Selection effects (- occurs when the ideal sample population participants are either too few or unavailable to the researcher)
Reactive effects (distortion created when those who are being observed change their behaviour because they know that they are being observed.)
(changes in the generalizability of study findings to other populations, as a result of administration of a pretest.)
potential threats to quantitative design
selection bias, morality, maturation
Measurement effects: instrumentation, testing effects
testing effects, history threats
needed questions (quan)
1. Study design appropriate (matches research
2. Control measures match design (maximizes
3. Design reflects feasibility
4. Design flows from research question, framework,
literature review, hypothesis
5. Control of threats to internal and external
6. Design linked to levels of evidence hierarchy
(maximize level of evidence)
7. Holds the conditions of the study constant
8. Establishes specific sampling criteria
Evaluate outcomes in terms of:
Three properties required?
experimental design advantages
Most appropriate for testing cause-and-effect
Provides highest level of evidence for single
experimental design disadvatages
Not all research questions are amenable to
experimental manipulation or randomization
Subject mortality (attrition) -especially control group
Difficult logistics in field settings
The distortion created when those who are being observed change their behaviour because they know that they are being observed. (aka reactivity)
control group design
control group design
Time series design
advantages/disadvantages of quasiexperimental
Practical and more feasible,
especially in clinical settings
Difficult to make clear
Can control extraneous
May not be able to
Uses both experimental, quasi-experimental and
Seeks to determine the outcome of a program
Uses analytical means to determine worth of an
activity or intervention
Can be formative (as it is being implemented) or
summative (after it is completed)
general criteria for quantitative research
o What design is used?
o Is the design experimental or quasiexperimental?
o Is the problem one of a cause-and-effect
o Is the method used appropriate for the
o Is the design suited to the study setting?
specific for experimental research
What design is used? Is it
How are randomization, control, and
Are there reasons to believe that alternative
explanations exist for the findings?
Are all threats to validity, including mortality,
addressed in the report?
specific for quasi
o What design is used? Is it
o What are the most common threats to the validity of
o What are the plausible alternative explanations for
the findings? Are they addressed?
o Does the author address threats to validity
o Are limitations addressed?
specific for evaluation
o Is the specific problem, practice, policy, or
treatment being evaluated identified?
o Are the outcomes to be evaluated identified?
o Is the problem analyzed and described?
o Is the program involved described and
o Are the measurements of change identified?
o Are the observed outcomes related to the activity
or to other causes?
non experimental research
In experimental research the independent
variable is manipulated vs non-experimental
where the independent variable is not
Independent variables occur naturally, and the
investigator cannot directly control them by
non experimental designs (quan)
I. Survey studies
II. Relationship or
descriptive, exploratory, comparative
relationship or difference studies
correlational studies, developmental studies
non- experimental advantages/disadvantages
Difficulty explaining cause-and-effect
Important to develop knowledge base on
phenomenon of interest
Useful in forecasting or making predictions
Important designs when randomization, control,
and manipulation are not appropriate or possible
Useful in testing theoretical models of how
variables work together in a group in a particular
Development and evaluation of data collection
instruments, scales, and techniques
most important aspect of methodological research in
Is the theory and development of the measurement
instruments and measurement techniques.
Examine factors affecting health/illness of
populations in relation to their environment
Investigate distribution, determinants, and
dynamics of health/disease
Often prevalence or incidence focused
non experimental critiquing criteria
Which nonexperimental design is used in the study?
In accordance with the theoretical framework, is the
rationale for the type of design evident?
How is the design congruent with the purpose of the study?
Is the design appropriate for the research problem?
Is the design suited to the data-collection methods?
Does the researcher present the findings in a manner
congruent with the design used?
Does the researcher theorize beyond the relational
parameters of the findings and erroneously infer cause-andeffect relationships between the variables?
Are alternative explanations for the findings possible?
How does the researcher discuss the threats to internal and
How does the researcher deal with the limitations of the
3 components of quantitative research design
purpose of a pilot study
wise approach to testing the accuracy of a study design before a larger study is undertaken because clinical problems have not yet been researched. A pilot study is a small, simple study conducted as a prelude to a larger study.
ways of controlling extraneous variables
a. Use of a homogeneous sample
b. Use of consistent data-collection procedures
c. Manipulation of the independent variable
components of RCT
9. In Experimental or quasiexperimental research designs what is the validity of the conclusion based on?
The primary focus is on the validity of the conclusion that the experimental treatment, or the independent variable, caused the desired effect on the outcome, or dependent variable. The validity of the conclusion depends on how well the researcher controlled the other variables that may explain the relationship studied. Thus, the findings of such studies provide the validation of clinical practice and the rationale for changing specific aspects of practice
the data are collected on only one occasion with the same participants rather than with the same participants at several times
prospective longitudinal study
involves collecting data from the same group at different times.
costly and time consuming
the dependent variable has already been affected by the independent variable, and the investigator attempts to link current events to past events.
the number of people affected by a disease or health problem
the number of cases occurring in a particular period
random control trial
considered to be the best research design, "the gold standard," for providing information about cause-and-effect relationships. An individual RCT generates level II evidence because only minimal bias is introduced by this design.
experimental group and control group
such as a study on medication (placebo)
a descriptive study that looks for a consistent relationship between two phenomena
survey to search for accurate information about the characteristics of particular participants, groups, institutions, or situations or about the frequency of a phenomenon's occurrence, particularly when little is known about the phenomenon.
Recommended textbook explanations
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
Myers' Psychology for AP
David G Myers
Myers' Psychology for the AP Course
David G Myers
Arlene Lacombe, Kathryn Dumper, Rose Spielman, William Jenkins
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